Table of Contents
ISRN Neurology
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 123173, 19 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2011/123173
Clinical Study

Visual Puzzles, Figure Weights, and Cancellation: Some Preliminary Hypotheses on the Functional and Neural Substrates of These Three New WAIS-IV Subtests

1Department of Neuropsychology, Wascana Rehabilitation Centre, 2180—23rd Avenue, Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada S4S 0A5
2Functional Rehabilitation Program, Wascana Rehabilitation Centre, 2180—23rd Avenue, Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada S4S 0A5

Received 21 March 2011; Accepted 20 April 2011

Academic Editors: C. Lang and D. Schiffer

Copyright © 2011 Simon M. McCrea and Thomas P. Robinson. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. N. Benson, D. M. Hulac, and J. H. Kranzler, “Independent examination of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV): what does the WAIS-IV measure?” Psychological Assessment, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 121–130, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. D. W. Loring and R. M. Bauer, “Testing the limits: cautions and concerns regarding the new Wechsler IQ and Memory scales,” Neurology, vol. 74, no. 8, pp. 685–690, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. B. Carroll, Ed., Human Cognitive Abilities: A Survey of Factor-Analytic Studies, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, USA, 1993.
  4. K. S. McGrew, “Analysis of the major intelligence batteries according to a proposed comprehensive Gf-Gc framework,” in Contemporary Intellectual Assessment: Theories, Tests, and Issues, D. P. Flanagan, J. L. Genshaft, and P. L. Harrison, Eds., pp. 151–179, Guilford Press, New York, NY, USA, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  5. K. S. McGrew, “The Cattell—Horn—Carroll theory of cognitive abilities: past, present, and future,” in Contemporary Intellectual Assessment: Theories, Tests, and Issues, D. P. Flanagan and P. L. Harrison, Eds., pp. 136–181, Guilford Press, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  6. A. de Ribaupierre and T. Lecerf, “Relationships between working memory and intelligence from a developmental perspective: convergent evidence from a neo-Piagetian and a psychometric approach,” European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 109–137, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. R. Likert and W. H. Quasha, Revised Minnesota Paper Form Board, Psychological Corporation, San Antonio, Tex, USA, 2nd edition, 1995.
  8. D. Wechsler, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale: Technical and Interpretive Manual, Psychological Corporation, San Antonio, Tex, USA, 4th edition, 2008.
  9. G. A. Tagaris, W. Richter, S. G. Kim et al., “Functional magnetic resonance imaging of mental rotation and memory scanning: a multidimensional scaling analysis of brain activation patterns,” Brain Research Reviews, vol. 26, no. 2-3, pp. 106–112, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. Molinari, L. Petrosini, S. Misciagna, and M. G. Leggio, “Visuospatial abilities in cerebellar disorders,” Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 235–240, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. H.-J. Kretschmann and W. Weinrich, Eds., Cranial Neuroimaging and Clinical Neuroanatomy: Atlas of MR Imaging and Computed Tomography, Thieme, New York, NY, USA, 3rd edition, 2004.
  12. M. C. Linn and A. C. Petersen, “Emergence and characterization of sex differences in spatial ability: a meta-analysis,” Child Development, vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 1479–1498, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. D. Voyer, S. Voyer, and M. P. Bryden, “Magnitude of sex differences in spatial abilities: a meta-analysis and consideration of critical variables,” Psychological Bulletin, vol. 117, no. 2, pp. 250–270, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. M. Zacks, “Neuroimaging studies of mental rotation: a meta-analysis and review,” Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 1–19, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M. J. Farah, “The neuropsychology of mental imagery,” in Handbook of Neuropsychology, F. Boller and J. Grafman, Eds., pp. 395–413, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  16. I. M. Harris and C. Miniussi, “Parietal lobe contribution to mental rotation demonstrated with rTMS,” Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 315–323, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. R. N. Shepard and J. Metzler, “Mental rotation of three-dimensional objects,” Science, vol. 171, no. 3972, pp. 701–703, 1971. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. B. Inhelder and J. Piaget, Eds., De la Logique de L'Enfant à la Logique de L'Adolescence: Essai sur la Construction des Structures Opératoires Formelles, Presses Universitaires de France, Paris, France, 1955.
  19. J. R. Gray, C. F. Chabris, and T. S. Braver, “Neural mechanisms of general fluid intelligence,” Nature Neuroscience, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 316–322, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. R. A. Varley, N. J. C. Klessinger, C. A. J. Romanowski, and M. Siegal, “Agrammatic but numerate,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 102, no. 9, pp. 3519–3524, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. L. Haavisto and J. E. Lehto, “Fluid/spatial and crystallized intelligence in relation to domain-specific working memory: a latent-variable approach,” Learning and Individual Differences, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 1–21, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. E. Gathercole, “Working memory,” in Learning and Memory: A Comprehensive Reference—Cognitive Psychology of Memory, J. H. Byrne and H. L. Roediger, Eds., pp. 33–48, Elsevier, San Diego, Calif, USA, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  23. P. W. Halligan and J. C. Marshall, “Is neglect (only) lateral? A quadrant analysis of line cancellation,” Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 793–798, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. Vanier, L. Gauthier, J. Lambert et al., “Evaluation of left visuospatial neglect: norms and discrimination power of two tests,” Neuropsychology, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 87–96, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. E. Bisiach, “Unilateral neglect and related disorders,” in Handbook of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, G. Denes and L. Pizzamiglio, Eds., pp. 479–495, Psychology Press, East Sussex, UK, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  26. H. Hecaen, Introduction à la Neuropsychologie, Librairie Larousse, Paris, France, 1972.
  27. S. M. McCrea, “Intuition, insight and the right hemisphere: emergence of higher sociocognitive functions,” Psychology Research and Behavior Management, vol. 3, pp. 1–39, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  28. H. O. Karnath, A. D. Milner, and G. Vallar, Eds., The Cognitive and Neural Bases of Spatial Neglect, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 2002.
  29. D. J. Mort, P. Malhotra, S. K. Mannan et al., “The anatomy of visual neglect,” Brain, vol. 126, no. 9, pp. 1986–1997, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. Urbanski, M. Thiebaut de Schotten, S. Rodrigo et al., “DTI-MR tractography of white matter damage in stroke patients with neglect,” Experimental Brain Research, vol. 208, no. 4, pp. 491–505, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  31. D. Wechsler, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Psychological Corporation, San Antonio, Tex, USA, 4th edition, 2008.
  32. D. Wechsler, Wechsler Memory Scale: Technical and Interpretive Manual, Psychological Corporation, San Antonio, Tex, USA, 4th edition, 2008.
  33. NCS Pearson, Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV: Administration and Scoring Manual, Psychological Corporation, San Antonio, Tex, USA, 2009.
  34. M. D. Lezak, Neuropsychological Assessment, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 3rd edition, 1995.
  35. R.A. McCarthy and E. K. Warrington, Cognitive Neuropsychology: A Clinical Introduction, Academic Press, San Diego, Calif, USA, 1990.
  36. R. M. Ruff and C. C. Allen, Ruff 2&7 Selective Attention Test: Professional Manual, Psychological Assessment Resources, Odessa, Fla, USA, 1996.
  37. D. Schretlen, The Brief Test of Attention Professional Manual, Psychological Assessment Resources, Odessa, Fla, USA, 1997.
  38. A. Smith, Symbol Digit Modalities Test: Manual, Western Psychological Services, Los Angeles, Calif, USA, 1982.
  39. D. C. Delis, E. Kaplan, and J. H. Kramer, Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System, Psychological Corporation, San Antonio, Tex, USA, 2001.
  40. R. M. Ruff, Ruff Figural Fluency Test: Professional Manual, Psychological Assessment Resources, Odessa, Fla, USA, 1996.
  41. R. K. Heaton, G. J. Chelune, J. L. Talley, G. G. Kay, and G. Curtiss, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test Manual: Revised and Expanded, Psychological Assessment Resources, Odessa, Fla, USA, 1993.
  42. N. A. DeFilippis and E. McCampbell, The Booklet Category Test: Professional Manual, Psychological Assessment Resources, Odessa, Fla, USA, 2nd edition, 1997.
  43. R. M. Reitan and D. Wolfson, The Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery: Theory and Clinical Interpretation, Neuropsychology Press, Tucson, Ariz, USA, 1993.
  44. R. L. Doty, The Smell Identification Test: Administration Manual, Sensonics, Haddon Heights, NJ, USA, 1995.
  45. E. K. Warrington and M. James, The Visual Object and Space Perception Battery Manual, Pearson Assessment, London, UK, 1991.
  46. S. McDonald, S. Flanagan, and J. Rollins, The Awareness of Social Inference Test: Manual, Pearson Assessment, London, UK, 2002.
  47. D. Milner and M. Goodale, Eds., The Visual Brain in Action, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 2nd edition, 2006.
  48. A. R. Luria, Higher Cortical Functions in Man, Basic Books, New York, NY, USA, 1966.
  49. M. Catani and D. H. Ffytche, “The rises and falls of disconnection syndromes,” Brain, vol. 128, no. 10, pp. 2224–2239, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. B. L. Miller and J. L. Cummings, Eds., The Human Frontal Lobes: Functions and Disorders, Guilford, New York, NY, USA, 1999.
  51. A.S. Kaufman and N. L. Kaufman, Kaufman Brief Intelligence: Test Manual, American Guidance Services, Circle Pines, Minn, USA, 1990.
  52. S. F. Cappa and L. A. Vignolo, “The neurological foundations of language,” in Handbook of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, G. Denes and L. Pizzamiglio, Eds., pp. 155–179, Psychology Press, East Sussex, UK, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  53. E. K. Warrington, M. James, and C. Maciejewski, “The WAIS as a lateralizing and localizing diagnostic instrument: a study of 656 patients with unilateral cerebral lesions,” Neuropsychologia, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 223–239, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. A. L. Benton, K. de Hamsher, and A. B. Sivan, Multilingual Aphasia Examination, Ann Arbor Publishers, Ann Arbor, Mich, USA, 3rd edition, 1994.
  55. L. F. D'Elia, P. Satz, C. L. Uchiyama, and T. White, Color Trails Test: Professional Manual, Psychological Assessment Resources, Odessa, Fla, USA, 1996.
  56. C. E. Curtis and M. D'Esposito, “Functional neuroimaging of working memory,” in Handbook of Functional Neuroimaging of Cognition, R. Cabeza and A. Kingstone, Eds., pp. 269–306, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass, USA, 2nd edition, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  57. A. Rzechorzek, “Cognitive dysfunctions resulting from unilateral frontal lobe lesions in man,” in Brain Impairment: Proceedings of the 1978 Brain Impairment Workshop, M. Molloy, G. V. Stanley, and K. W. Walsh, Eds., University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia, 1979. View at Google Scholar
  58. L. C. Robertson, Space, Objects, Minds and Brains, Psychology Press, New York, NY, USA, 2004.
  59. J. A. Gladsjo, S. W. Miller, and R. K. Heaton, Norms for Letter and Category Fluency: Demographic Corrections for Age, Education and Ethnicity, Psychological Assessment Resources, Odessa, Fla, USA, 1999.
  60. T. A. Edwards-Lee and R. E. Saul, “Neuropsychiatry of the right frontal lobe,” in The Human Frontal Lobes: Functions and Disorders, B. L. Miller and J. L. Cummings, Eds., pp. 304–320, Guilford Press, New York, NY, USA, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  61. P. T. Costa and R. R. McCrae, Revised NEO Personality Inventory Professional Manual, Psychological Assessment Resources, Odessa, Fla, USA, 1992.
  62. J. Driver, M. Eimer, E. Macaluso, and J. van Velzen, “Neurobiology of human spatial attention: modulation, generation and integration,” in Functional Neuroimaging of Visual Cognition: Attention and Performance XX, N. Kanwisher and J. Duncan, Eds., pp. 267–298, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  63. E. K. Warrington and M. James, “A new test of object decision: 2D silhouettes featuring a minimal view,” Cortex, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 370–383, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. M. Gasparini, A. M. Hufty, G. Masciarelli et al., “Contribution of right hemisphere to visual imagery: a visual working memory impairment?” Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 902–911, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. R. M. Ruff, C. C. Allen, C. E. Farrow, H. Niemann, and T. Wylie, “Figural fluency: differential impairment in patients with left versus right frontal lobe lesions,” Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 41–55, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. L. Sela, Y. Sacher, C. Serfaty, Y. Yeshurun, N. Soroker, and N. Sobel, “Spared and impaired olfactory abilities after thalamic lesions,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 29, no. 39, pp. 12059–12069, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  67. C. G. Matthews and H. Klove, Instruction Manual for the Adult Neuropsychology Test Battery, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, Wis, USA, 1964.
  68. M. A. Kraut, S. Kremen, L. R. Moo, J. B. Segal, V. Calhoun, and J. Hart Jr., “Object activation in semantic memory from visual multimodal feature input,” Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 37–47, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. J. S. Morris, K. J. Friston, and R. J. Dolan, “Neural responses to salient visual stimuli,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B, vol. 264, no. 1382, pp. 769–775, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. D. Wechsler, Wechsler Memory Scale, Psychological Corporation, San Antonio, Tex, USA, 3rd edition, 1997.
  71. C. C. Hagan, W. Woods, S. Johnson, A. J. Calder, G. G. R. Green, and A. W. Young, “MEG demonstrates a supra-additive response to facial and vocal emotion in the right superior temporal sulcus,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 106, no. 47, pp. 20010–20015, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. M. A. Peterson and G. Rhodes, Eds., Perception of Faces, Objects and Scenes: Analytic and Holistic Processes, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 2003.
  73. B. Stemmer, “Neuropragmatics: disorders and neural systems,” in Handbook of the Neuroscience of Language, B. Stemmer and H. A. Whitaker, Eds., pp. 175–187, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  74. M. F. S. Rushworth, P. D. Nixon, S. Renowden, D. T. Wade, and R. E. Passingham, “The left parietal cortex and motor attention,” Neuropsychologia, vol. 35, no. 9, pp. 1261–1273, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. G. Micelli and R. Capasso, “Calculation and number processing,” in Handbook of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, G. Denes and L. Pizzamiglio, Eds., pp. 583–612, Psychology Press, East Sussex, UK, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  76. F. Chochon, L. Cohen, P. F. van de Moortele, and S. Dehaene, “Differential contributions of the left and right inferior parietal lobules to number processing,” Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 617–630, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. G. Le Clec'H, S. Dehaene, L. Cohen et al., “Distinct cortical areas for names of numbers and body parts independent of language and input modality,” NeuroImage, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 381–391, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. G. F. Woodman, S. J. Luck, and J. D. Schall, “The role of working memory representations in the control of attention,” Cerebral Cortex, vol. 17, supplement 1, pp. i118–i124, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. F. Pulvermuller and O. Hauk, “Category-specific conceptual processing of color and form in left fronto-temporal cortex,” Cerebral Cortex, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 1193–1201, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. T. N. Chase, P. Fedio, N. L. Foster, R. Brooks, G. Di Chiro, and L. Mansi, “Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale performance: cortical localization by fluorodeoxyglucose F 18-positron emission tomography,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 41, no. 12, pp. 1244–1247, 1984. View at Google Scholar