Table of Contents
ISRN Veterinary Science
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 210982, 16 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2011/210982
Review Article

Origins of Injection-Site Sarcomas in Cats: The Possible Role of Chronic Inflammation—A Review

1Technology Sciences (Europe) Limited, Concordia House, St James Business Park, Grimbald Crag Court, Knaresborough, North Yorkshire, HG5 8QB, UK
2Intervet/Schering-Plough Animal Health, Breakspear Road South, Harefield, Uxbridge, Middlesex, UB9 6LS, UK

Received 17 January 2011; Accepted 13 February 2011

Academic Editors: M. Malkinson and A. Pratelli

Copyright © 2011 Kevin N. Woodward. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. G. Sinkovics, “Adult human sarcomas. I. Basic science,” Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 31–56, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  2. J. G. Sinkovics, “Adult human sarcomas. II. Medical oncology,” Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 183–210, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  3. D. E. Thrall and E. L. Gillette, “Soft-tissue sarcomas,” Seminars in Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 173–179, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  4. E. G. MacEwen, “Spontaneous tumors in dogs and cats: models for the study of cancer biology and treatment,” Cancer and Metastasis Reviews, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 125–136, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  5. J. M. Liptak and L. J. Forrest, “Soft tissue sarcomas,” in Withrow and MacEwen’s Small Animal Clinical Oncology, S. J. Withrow and D. M. Vail, Eds., pp. 425–454, Saunders Elsevier, St Louis, Miss, USA, 4th edition, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  6. S. M. Liu and I. Mikaelian, “Cutaneous smooth muscle tumors in the dog and cat,” Veterinary Pathology, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 685–692, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  7. D. M. Vail and E. G. MacEwen, “Spontaneously occurring tumors of companion animals as models for human cancer,” Cancer Investigation, vol. 18, no. 8, pp. 781–792, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  8. L. G. Barber, K. U. Sørenmo, K. L. Cronin, and F. S. Shofer, “Combined doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy for nonresectable feline fibrosarcoma,” Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 416–421, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  9. D. E. Bostock and M. T. Dye, “Prognosis after surgical excision of fibrosarcomas in cats,” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, vol. 175, no. 7, pp. 727–728, 1979. View at Google Scholar
  10. C. G. Couto and D. W. Macy, “Review of treatment options for vaccine-associated feline sarcoma,” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, vol. 213, no. 10, pp. 1426–1427, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  11. K. Cronin, R. L. Page, G. Spodnick et al., “Radiation therapy and surgery for fibrosarcoma in 33 cats,” Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 51–56, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  12. E. B. Davidson, C. R. Gregory, and P. H. Kass, “Surgical excision of soft tissue fibrosarcomas in cats,” Veterinary Surgery, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 265–269, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  13. K. M. Davis, E. M. Hardie, F. R. Martin, J. Zhu, and C. Brownie, “Correlation between perioperative factors and successful outcome in fibrosarcoma resection in cats,” Veterinary Record, vol. 161, no. 6, pp. 199–200, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  14. W. S. Dernell, S. J. Withrow, C. A. Kuntz, and B. E. Powers, “Principles of treatment for soft tissue sarcoma,” Clinical Techniques in Small Animal Practice, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 59–64, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  15. D. E. Hilmas and E. L. Gillette, “Radiotherapy of spontaneous fibrous connective tissue sarcomas in animals,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 365–368, 1976. View at Google Scholar
  16. C. A. Novosad, “Principles of treatment for vaccine-associated sarcomas,” Clinical Techniques in Small Animal Practice, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 115–117, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. K. M. Rassnick, C. O. Rodrigues, C. Khanna et al., “Results of a phase II clinical trial on the use of ifosfamide for treatment of cats with vaccine-associated sarcomas,” American Journal of Veterinary Research, vol. 67, no. 3, pp. 517–523, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  18. D. Aberdein, J. S. Munday, C. B. Dyer, C. G. Knight, A. F. French, and I. R. Gibson, “Comparison of the histology and immunohistochemistry of vaccination-site and non-vaccination-site sarcomas from cats in New Zealand,” New Zealand Veterinary Journal, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 203–207, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  19. G. Burton and K. V. Mason, “Do postvaccinal sarcomas occur in Australian cats?” Australian Veterinary Journal, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 102–106, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  20. M. M. G. De Man and R. V. Ducatelle, “Bilateral subcutaneous fibrosarcomas in a cat following feline parvo-, herpes- and calicivirus vaccination,” Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 432–434, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  21. D. G. Esplin, M. Bigelow, L. D. McGill, and S. R. Wilson, “Fibrosarcoma at the site of a lufenuron injection in a cat,” Veterinary Cancer Society Newsletter, no. 23, pp. 8–9, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  22. A. C. Gagnon, “Drug injection-associated fibrosarcoma in a cat,” Feline Practice, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 18–21, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  23. L. T. Gemmill, “Injection-site sarcomas in cats,” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, vol. 213, no. 7, p. 955, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  24. P. H. Kass, W. G. Barnes, W. L. Spangler, B. B. Chomel, and M. R. Culbertson, “Epidemiological evidence for a causal relationship between vaccination and fibrosarcoma tumorigenesis in cats,” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, vol. 203, no. 3, pp. 396–405, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  25. D. W. Macy, “Current understanding of vaccination site-associated sarcomas in the cat,” Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 15–21, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  26. E. A. McNiel, “Vaccine-associated sarcomas in cats: a unique cancer model,” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, no. 382, pp. 21–27, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  27. S. C. Shaw, M. S. Kent, I. K. Gordon et al., “Temporal changes in characteristics of injection-site sarcomas in cats: 392 cases (1990–2006),” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, vol. 234, no. 3, pp. 376–380, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  28. K. N. Woodward, “Veterinary pharmacovigilance. Part 2. Veterinary pharmacovigilance in practice—the operation of a spontaneous reporting scheme in a European Union country—the UK, and schemes in other countries,” Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 149–170, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  29. K. N. Woodward and L. Toon, “Adverse reactions to vaccines,” in Veterinary Pharmacovigilance, K. N. Woodward, Ed., pp. 453–473, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK., 2009. View at Google Scholar
  30. E. E. Carroll, R. R. Dubielzig, and R. D. Schultz, “Cats differ from mink and ferrets in their response to commercial vaccines: a histologic comparison of early vaccine reactions,” Veterinary Pathology, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 216–227, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  31. S. S. Couto, S. M. Griffey, P. C. Duarte, and B. R. Madewell, “Feline vaccine-associated fibrosarcoma: morphologic distinctions,” Veterinary Pathology, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 33–41, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  32. B. R. Madewell, S. M. Griffey, M. C. McEntee, V. J. Leppert, and R. J. Munn, “Feline vaccine-associated fibrosarcoma: an ultrastructural study of 20 tumors (1996–1999),” Veterinary Pathology, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 196–202, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. B. Mayr, U. Eschborn, and M. Kalat, “Near triploidy in a feline fibrosarcoma,” Zentralblatt fur Veterinarmedizin. Reihe A, vol. 38, no. 8, pp. 617–620, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  34. B. Mayr, B. Bockstahler, G. Loupal, M. Reifinger, and W. Schleger, “Cytogenetic variation between four cases of feline fibrosarcoma,” Research in Veterinary Science, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 268–270, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  35. C. M. Briscoe, T. P. Lipscomb, and L. McKinney, “Pulmonary metastasis of a feline vaccination-site fibrosarcoma,” Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 79–82, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  36. D. G. Esplin, “Widespread metastasis of a fibrosarcoma associated with vaccination site in a cat,” Feline Practice, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 13–16, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  37. M. Martano, E. Morello, M. Ughetto et al., “Surgery alone versus surgery and doxorubicin for the treatment of feline injection-site sarcomas: a report on 69 cases,” Veterinary Journal, vol. 170, no. 1, pp. 84–90, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  38. R. Dean, V. Adams, T. Whitbread et al., “Study of feline injection site sarcomas,” Veterinary Record, vol. 159, no. 19, p. 641, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  39. G. Romanelli, L. Marconato, D. Olivero, F. Massari, and E. Zini, “Analysis of prognostic factors associated with injection-site sarcomas in cats: 57 cases (2001–2007),” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, vol. 232, no. 8, pp. 1193–1199, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  40. D. G. Rudmann, W. G. Van Alstine, F. Doddy, G. E. Sandusky, T. Barkdull, and E. B. Janovitz, “Pulmonary and mediastinal metastases of a vaccination-site sarcoma in a cat,” Veterinary Pathology, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 466–469, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  41. I. Sandler, M. Teeger, and S. Best, “Metastatic vaccine associated fibrosarcoma in a 10-year-old cat,” Canadian Veterinary Journal, vol. 38, no. 6, p. 374, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  42. F. D. Doddy, L. T. Glickman, N. W. Glickman, and E. B. Janovitz, “Feline fibrosarcomas at vaccination sites and non-vaccination sites,” Journal of Comparative Pathology, vol. 114, no. 2, pp. 165–174, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  43. M. J. Hendrick and J. J. Brooks, “Postvaccinal sarcomas in the cat: histology and immunohistochemistry,” Veterinary Pathology, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 126–129, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  44. V. S. Bregazzi, S. M. LaRue, E. McNiel et al., “Treatment with a combination of doxorubicin, surgery, and radiation versus surgery and radiation alone for cats with vaccine-associated sarcomas: 25 cases (1995–2000),” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, vol. 218, no. 4, pp. 547–550, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  45. M. Cohen, J. C. Wright, W. R. Brawner, A. N. Smith, R. Henderson, and E. N. Behrend, “Use of surgery and electron beam irradiation, with or without chemotherapy, for treatment of vaccine-associated sarcomas in cats: 78 cases (1996–2000),” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, vol. 219, no. 11, pp. 1582–1589, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  46. C. Eckstein, F. Guscetti, M. Roos, J. Martín de Las Mulas, B. Kaser-Hotz, and C. Rohrer Bley, “A retrospective analysis of radiation therapy for the treatment of feline vaccine-associated sarcoma,” Veterinary and Comparative Oncology, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 54–68, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  47. A. E. Hershey, R. R. Dubielzig, M. L. Padilla, and S. C. Helfand, “Aberrant p53 expression in feline vaccine-associated sarcomas and correlation with prognosis,” Veterinary Pathology, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 805–811, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  48. G. K. Ogilvie, “Recent advances in the treatment of vaccine-associated sarcomas,” Veterinary Clinics of North America—Small Animal Practice, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 525–533, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  49. B. Séguin, “Feline injection site sarcomas,” Veterinary Clinics of North America, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 983–995, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  50. H. W. Chang, S. Y. Ho, H. F. Lo et al., “Vaccine-associated rhabdomyosarcoma with spinal epidural invasion and pulmonary metastasis in a cat,” Veterinary Pathology, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 55–58, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  51. T. J. Gruifydd Jones and A. H. Sparkes, “Vaccination and fibrosarcomas in cats,” Veterinary Record, vol. 134, no. 12, p. 310, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  52. B. R. Madewell, T. L. Gieger, P. A. Pesavento, and M. S. Kent, “Vaccine site-associated sarcoma and malignant lymphoma in cats: a report of six cases (1997–2002),” Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 47–50, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  53. M. J. Brearley, “Vaccine-associated feline sarcoma–an emerging problem,” Journal of feline medicine and surgery, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 5–6, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  54. M. Martin, “Vaccine-associated fibrosarcoma in a cat,” Canadian Veterinary Journal, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 660–663, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  55. J. P. Sauvage, “Vaccine-associated feline sarcoma,” Veterinary Record, vol. 152, no. 17, p. 542, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  56. R. R. Dubielzig, K. L. Hawkins, and P. E. Miller, “Myofibroblastic sarcoma originating at the site of rabies vaccination in a cat,” Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 637–638, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  57. D. G. Esplin, L. D. McGill, A. C. Meininger, and S. R. Wilson, “Postvaccination sarcomas in cats,” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, vol. 202, no. 8, pp. 1245–1247, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  58. D. G. Esplin, M. H. Jaffe, and L. D. McGill, “Metastasizing liposarcoma associated with a vaccination site in a cat,” Feline Practice, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 20–23, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  59. C. Giudice, D. Stefanello, M. Sala et al., “Feline injection-site sarcoma: recurrence, tumour grading and surgical margin status evaluated using the three-dimensional histological technique,” Veterinary Journal, vol. 186, no. 1, pp. 84–88, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  60. S. F. Grace, “Sarcomas, injection site,” in The Feline Patient, G. D. Norsworthy, S. F. Grace, and L. P. Tilley, Eds., pp. 294–295, Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 3rd edition, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  61. K. Kamenica, T. Brill, J. Hirschberger, R. Köstlin, and W. Hermanns, “Vaccine-associated feline fibrosarcomas: histopathological findings and prognosisVakzineassoziierte feline fibrosarkome: histopathologische befunde und prognose,” Tierärztliche Praxis Ausgabe K, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 127–134, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  62. T. Kobayashi, M. L. Hauck, R. Dodge et al., “Preoperative radiotherapy for vaccine associated sarcoma in 92 cats,” Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 473–479, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  63. S. North and T. Banks, “Sarcomas of the skin and subcutaneous tissues,” in Small Animal Oncology. An Introduction, pp. 197–208, Saunders Elsevier, London, UK,, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  64. V. J. Poirier, D. H. Thamm, I. D. Kurzman et al., “Liposome-encapsulated doxorubicin (Doxil) and doxorubicin in the treatment of vaccine-associated sarcoma in cats,” Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 726–731, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  65. A. E. Hershey, K. U. Sorenmo, M. J. Hendrick, F. S. Shofer, and D. M. Vail, “Prognosis for presumed feline vaccine-associated sarcoma after excision: 61 cases (1986–1996),” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, vol. 216, no. 1, pp. 58–61, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  66. M. J. Coyne, N. C. P. Reeves, and D. K. Rosen, “Estimated prevalence of injection-site sarcomas in cats during 1992,” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, vol. 210, no. 2, pp. 249–251, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  67. G. M. Gobar and P. H. Kass, “World Wide Web-based survey of vaccination practices, postvaccinal reactions, and vaccine site-associated sarcomas in cats,” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, vol. 220, no. 10, pp. 1477–1482, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  68. S. Lester, T. Clemett, and A. Burt, “Vaccine site-associated sarcomas in cats: clinical experience and a laboratory review (1982–1993),” Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 91–95, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  69. B. Tennant, “Feline injection-site fibrosarcomas: results of a BSAVA survey,” Journal of Small Animal Practice, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 181–182, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  70. M. J. Hendrick, “Historical review and current knowledge of risk factors involved in feline vaccine-associated sarcomas,” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, vol. 213, no. 10, pp. 1422–1423, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  71. M. J. Hendrick, “Feline vaccine-associated sarcomas: current studies on pathogenesis,” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, vol. 213, no. 10, pp. 1425–1426, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  72. M. J. Hendrick, F. S. Shofer, M. H. Goldschmidt et al., “Comparison of fibrosarcomas that developed at vaccination sites and at nonvaccination sites in cats: 239 cases (1991-1992),” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, vol. 205, no. 10, pp. 1425–1429, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  73. L. P. Thornburg, “Postvaccination sarcomas in cats,” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, vol. 203, no. 2, pp. 193–196, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  74. P. H. Kass, W. L. Spangler, M. J. Hendrick et al., “Multicenter case-control study of risk factors associated with development of vaccine-associated sarcomas in cats,” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, vol. 223, no. 9, pp. 1283–1292, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  75. D. W. Macy and C. Guillermo Couto, “Prevention and treatment of injection-site sarcomas,” Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 169–170, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  76. M. C. McEntee and R. L. Page, “Feline vaccine-associated sarcomas,” Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 176–182, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  77. W. B. Morrison and R. M. Starr, “Vaccine-associated feline sarcomas,” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, vol. 218, no. 5, pp. 697–702, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  78. R. M. Gaskell, G. Gettinby, S. J. Graham, and D. Skilton, “Veterinary Products Committee working group report on feline and canine vaccination,” Veterinary Record, vol. 150, no. 5, pp. 126–134, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  79. M. Hauck, “Feline injection site sarcomas,” Veterinary Clinics of North America—Small Animal Practice, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 553–571, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  80. H. Tjälve, “Adverse reactions to veterinary drugs in Sweden during 2002, part 3,” Svensk Veterinärtidning, no. 11, pp. 31–36, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  81. H. Tjälve, “Adverse reactions to veterinary drugs in Sweden during 2003, part 2,” Svensk Veterinärtidning, no. 14, pp. 17–25, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  82. J. R. Richards, R. M. Starr, H. E. Childers et al., “The current understanding and management of vaccine-associated sarcomas in cats,” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, vol. 226, no. 11, pp. 1821–1842, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  83. A. K. Gray and S. Knivett, “Suspected adverse reactions, 2001,” Veterinary Record, vol. 151, no. 25, pp. 749–752, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  84. A. K. Gray, S. Knivett, C. Evans, and C. Long, “Suspected adverse reactions, 2002,” Veterinary Record, vol. 153, no. 9, pp. 251–254, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  85. F. Dyer, R. Mulugeta, C. Evans, and A. Tait, “Suspected adverse reactions, 2003,” Veterinary Record, vol. 154, no. 26, pp. 806–808, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  86. F. Dyer, R. Mulugeta, M. Spagnuolo-Weaver, and A. Tait, “Suspected adverse reactions, 2004,” Veterinary Record, vol. 156, no. 18, pp. 561–563, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  87. F. Dyer, M. Spagnuolo-Weaver, and A. Tait, “Suspected adverse reactions, 2005,” Veterinary Record, vol. 158, no. 14, pp. 464–466, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  88. F. Dyer, M. Spagnuolo-Weaver, S. Cooles, and A. Tait, “Suspected adverse reactions, 2006,” Veterinary Record, vol. 160, no. 22, pp. 748–750, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  89. F. Dyer, M. Spagnuolo-Weaver, S. Cooles, and A. Tait, “Suspected adverse reactions, 2007,” Veterinary Record, vol. 163, no. 3, pp. 69–72, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  90. F. Dyer, E. Brown, S. Cooles, and A. Tait, “Suspected adverse reactions, 2008,” Veterinary Record, vol. 165, no. 6, pp. 162–164, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  91. F. Dyer, G. Diesel, S. Cooles, and A. Tait, “Suspected adverse reactions, 2009,” The Veterinary Record, vol. 167, no. 4, pp. 118–121, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  92. Z. Deim, N. Pálmai, and G. Cserni, “Feline vaccine-associated fibrosarcoma induced by aluminium compound in two cats: short communication,” Acta Veterinaria Hungarica, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 111–116, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  93. B. A. Kidney, J. A. Ellis, D. M. Haines, and M. L. Jackson, “Evaluation of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues obtained from vaccine site-associated sarcomas of cats for DNA of feline immunodeficiency virus,” American Journal of Veterinary Research, vol. 61, no. 9, pp. 1037–1041, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  94. P. Grasso and L. Golberg, “Early changes at the site of repeated subcutaneous injection of food colourings,” Food and Cosmetics Toxicology, vol. 4, pp. 269–282, 1966. View at Google Scholar
  95. E. Boyland, R. L. Carter, J. W. Gorrod, and F. J. C. Roe, “Carcinogenic properties of certain rubber additives,” European Journal of Cancer, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 233–239, 1968. View at Google Scholar
  96. A. Braun and V. Kren, “Attempt to induce tumours by subcutaneous and intraperitoneal administration of Ferridextran (Spofa),” Neoplasma, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 21–27, 1968. View at Google Scholar
  97. R. L. Carter, “Early development of injection-site sarcomas in rats: a study of tumours induced by a rubber additive,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 408–416, 1969. View at Google Scholar
  98. R. L. Carter, B. C. Mitchley, and F. J. Roe, “Induction of tumours in mice and rats with ferric sodium gluconate and iron dextran glycerol glycoside,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 521–526, 1968. View at Google Scholar
  99. P. Constantinides and M. Harkey, “Initiation of a transplantable fibrosarcoma by the synergism of two non-initiators, alpha-tocopherol and soya oil,” Virchows Archiv, vol. 405, no. 3, pp. 285–297, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  100. J. Driessens, A. Clay, J. Vanlerenberghe, A. Dupont, L. Adenis, and A. Demaille, “Sarcomas at the subcutaneous injection site with trypan blue in the Wistar rat. Histological and cytological studies,” Bulletin de l’Association Française pour l’Étude du Cancer, vol. 50, pp. 195–202, 1963. View at Google Scholar
  101. P. Grasso, S. D. Gangolli, and J. Hooson, “Connective tissue response to a short-term series of subcutaneous injections of sorbic acid or aflatoxin. Physico-chemical factors determining reaction to sorbic acid,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 787–799, 1969. View at Google Scholar
  102. W. C. Huepner, “Experimental carcinogenic studies in macromolecular chemicals. 1. Neoplastic reactions in rats and mice after parenteral introduction of polyvinyl pyrrolidones,” Cancer, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 8–18, 1957. View at Google Scholar
  103. J. Hooson, P. Grasso, and S. D. Gangolli, “Early reactions of the subcutaneous tissue to repeated injections of carcinogens in aqueous solutions,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 505–515, 1971. View at Google Scholar
  104. J. Hooson, P. Grasso, and S. D. Gangolli, “Injection site tumours and preceding pathological changes in rats treated subcutaneously with surfactants and carcinogens,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 230–244, 1973. View at Google Scholar
  105. M. Matsuyama and K. Suzumori, “Effects of repeated subcutaneous injection of Tween-80 in rats,” Nagoya Medical Journal, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 1966. View at Google Scholar
  106. Y. Nitta, K. Kamiya, M. Tanimoto, S. Sadamoto, O. Niwa, and K. Yokoro, “Induction of transplantable tumors by repeated subcutaneous injections of natural and synthetic vitamin E in mice and rats,” Japanese Journal of Cancer Research, vol. 82, no. 5, pp. 511–517, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  107. S. D. Gangolli, P. Grasso, and L. Golberg, “Physical factors determining the early local tissue reactions produced by food colourings and other compounds injected subcutaneously,” Food and Cosmetics Toxicology, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 601–621, 1967. View at Google Scholar
  108. P. Grasso, S. D. Gangolli, L. Golberg, and J. Hooson, “Physicochemical and other factors determining local sarcoma production by food additives,” Food and Cosmetics Toxicology, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 463–IN1, 1971. View at Google Scholar
  109. P. Grasso, M. Sharratt, and A. J. Cohen, “Role of persistent, non-genotoxic tissue damage in rodent cancer and relevance to humans,” Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, vol. 31, pp. 253–287, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  110. P. Grasso and R. F. Crampton, “The value of the mouse in carcinogenicity testing,” Food and Cosmetics Toxicology, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 418–426, 1972. View at Google Scholar
  111. J. B. Blumberg, P. C. Griffith, and K. A. Merendino, “The effect of specific compression on soft-tissue response to formalinized polyvinyl alcohol (ivalon) sponge: a critical evaluation,” Annals of surgery, vol. 151, pp. 409–418, 1960. View at Google Scholar
  112. L. C. Buoen, I. Brand, and K. G. Brand, “Foreign body tumorigenesis: in vitro isolation and expansion of preneoplastic clonal cell populations,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 721–723, 1975. View at Google Scholar
  113. K. G. Brand, “Diversity and complexity of carcinogenic processes: conceptual inferences from foreign body tumorigenesis,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 973–976, 1976. View at Google Scholar
  114. K. G. Brand, L. C. Buoen, and I. Brand, “Foreign body tumorigenesis: timing and location of preneoplastic events,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 829–836, 1971. View at Google Scholar
  115. K. G. Brand, L. C. Buoen, and I. Brand, “Foreign body tumorigenesis in mice: most probable number or originator cells,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 1071–1074, 1973. View at Google Scholar
  116. K. G. Brand, L. C. Buoen, and I. Brand, “Foreign body tumorigenesis induced by glass and smooth and rough plastic: comparative study of preneoplastic events,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 319–322, 1975. View at Google Scholar
  117. K. G. Brand, L. C. Buoen, K. H. Johnson, and I. Brand, “Etiological factors, stages, and the role of the foreign body in foreign body tumorigenesis: a review,” Cancer Research, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 279–286, 1975. View at Google Scholar
  118. K. G. Brand, L. C. Buoen, and I. Brand, “Foreign body tumorigenesis by vinyl chloride vinyl acetate copolymer: no evidence for chemical cocarcinogenesis,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 1259–1262, 1975. View at Google Scholar
  119. L. C. Buoen, I. Brand, and K. G. Brand, “Foreign body tumorigenesis: in vitro isolation and expansion of preneoplastic clonal cell populations,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 721–723, 1975. View at Google Scholar
  120. K. G. Brand, L. C. Buoen, and I. Brand, “Multiphasic incidence of foreign body induced sarcomas,” Cancer Research, vol. 36, no. 10, pp. 3681–3683, 1976. View at Google Scholar
  121. P. A. Dewan, A. J. Owen, and R. W. Byard, “Long-term histological response to subcutaneously injected Polytef and Bioplastique in a rat model,” British Journal of Urology, vol. 76, no. 2, pp. 161–164, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  122. M. M. Iomhair and S. M. Lavelle, “Effect of film size on production of foreign body sarcoma by perforated film implants,” Technology and Health Care, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 331–334, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  123. K. H. Johnson, H. K. G. Ghobrial, and L. C. Buoen, “Nonfibroblastic origin of foreign body sarcomas implicated by histological and electron microscopic studies,” Cancer Research, vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 3139–3154, 1973. View at Google Scholar
  124. K. H. Johnson, H. K. G. Ghobrial, L. C. Buoen, I. Brand, and K. G. Brand, “Intracisternal type A particles occurring in foreign body induced sarcomas,” Cancer Research, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 1165–1168, 1973. View at Google Scholar
  125. R. D. Karp, K. H. Johnson, L. C. Buoen, K. G. Ghobrial, I. Brand, and K. G. Brand, “Tumorigenesis by millipore filters in mice: histology and ultrastructure of tissue reactions as related to pore size,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 1275–1285, 1973. View at Google Scholar
  126. T. G. Moĭzhess, “Carcinogenesis induced by foreign bodies,” Biochemistry (Moscow), vol. 73, no. 7, pp. 763–775, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  127. F. Okada, M. Hosokawa, J. I. Hamada et al., “Progression of a weakly tumorigenic mouse fibrosarcoma at the site of early phase of inflammation caused by plastic plates,” Japanese Journal of Cancer Research, vol. 84, no. 12, pp. 1230–1236, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  128. B. S. Oppenheimer, E. T. Oppenheimer, and A. P. Stout, “Sarcomas induced in rodents by imbedding various plastic films,” Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 366–369, 1952. View at Google Scholar
  129. B. S. Oppenheimer, E. T. Oppenheimer, A. P. Stout, and I. Danishefsky, “Malignant tumors resulting from embedding plastics in rodents,” Science, vol. 118, no. 3063, pp. 305–306, 1953. View at Google Scholar
  130. B. S. Oppenheimer, E. T. Oppenheimer, and A. P. Stout, “Carcinogenicity effect of imbedding various plastic films in rats and mice,” Surgical Forum, vol. 4, pp. 672–676, 1953. View at Google Scholar
  131. E. T. Oppenheimer, M. Willhite, A. P. Stout, I. Danishefsky, and M. M. Fishman, “A comparative study of the effects of imbedding Cellophane and polystyrene films in rats,” Cancer Research, vol. 24, pp. 379–382, 1964. View at Google Scholar
  132. M. J. Thomassen, L. C. Bouen, and K. G. Brand, “Foreign body tumorigenesis: number, distribution, and cell density of preneoplastic clones,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 203–207, 1975. View at Google Scholar
  133. L. Tomatis, “Studies in subcutaneous carcinogenesis with implants of glass and Teflon in mice,” Acta-Unio Internationalis Contra Cancrum, vol. 19, pp. 607–611, 1963. View at Google Scholar
  134. F. C. Turner, “Sarcomas at sites of subcutaneously implanted Bakelite disks in rats,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 2, no. 8, pp. 81–83, 1941. View at Google Scholar
  135. T. Blankenstein and Z. Qin, “Chemical carcinogens as foreign bodies and some pitfalls regarding cancer immune surveillance,” Advances in Cancer Research, vol. 90, pp. 179–207, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  136. F. Okada, “Beyond foreign-body-induced carcinogenesis: impact of reactive oxygen species derived from inflammatory cells in tumorigenic conversion and tumor progression,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 121, no. 11, pp. 2364–2372, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  137. R. M. Peek and J. E. Crabtree, “Helicobacter infection and gastric neoplasia,” Journal of Pathology, vol. 208, no. 2, pp. 233–248, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  138. D. L. Coleman, R. N. King, and J. D. Andrade, “The foreign body reaction: a chronic inflammatory response,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 199–211, 1974. View at Google Scholar
  139. C. J. Powell and C. L. Berry, “Non-genotoxic or epigenetic carcinogenesis,” in General and Applied Toxicology, B. Ballantyne, T. Marrs, and T. Syversen, Eds., pp. 1757–1778, Macmillan Reference, Basingstoke, UK, 3rd edition, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  140. K. G. Brand, “Do implanted medical devices cause cancer?” Journal of Biomaterials Applications, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 325–343, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  141. J. P. Fryzek, L. Mellemkjaer, J. K. McLaughlin, W. J. Blot, and J. H. Olsen, “Cancer risk among patients with finger and hand joint and temporo- mandibular joint prostheses in Denmark,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 81, no. 5, pp. 723–725, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  142. W. J. Gillespie, C. M. A. Frampton, R. J. Henderson, and P. M. Ryan, “The incidence of cancer following total hip replacement,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery—Series B, vol. 70, no. 4, pp. 539–542, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  143. W. J. Gillespie, D. A. Henry, D. L. O'Connell et al., “Development of hematopoietic cancers after implantation of total joint replacement,” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, no. 329, supplement, pp. S290–S296, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  144. International Agency for Research on Cancer, Surgical Implants and Other Foreign Bodies. Summary of Data Reported and Evaluation, IARC, World Health Organisation, Geneva, Switzerland, 1999.
  145. S. Lewold, H. Olsson, P. Gustafson, A. Rydholm, and L. Lidgren, “Overall cancer incidence not increased after prosthetic knee replacement: 14,551 patients followed for 66,622 person-years,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 30–33, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  146. E. B. Mathiesen, A. Ahlbom, G. Bermann, and J. U. Lindgren, “Total hip replacement and cancer. A cohort study,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery—Series B, vol. 77, no. 3, pp. 345–350, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  147. D. B. McGregor, R. A. Baan, C. Partensky, J. M. Rice, and J. D. Wilbourn, “Evaluation of the carcinogenic risks to humans associated with surgical implants and other foreign bodies—a report of an IARC Monographs Programme Meeting,” European Journal of Cancer, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 307–313, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  148. J. H. Olsen, J. K. McLaughlin, O. Nyrén et al., “Hip and knee implantations among patients with osteoarthritis and risk of cancer: a record-linkage study from Denmark,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 81, no. 5, pp. 719–722, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  149. P. Paavolainen, E. Pukkala, P. Pulkkinen, and T. Visuri, “Cancer incidence in Finnish hip replacement patients from 1980 to 1995: a nationwide cohort study involving 31,651 patients,” Journal of Arthroplasty, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 272–280, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  150. T. Visuri, E. Pukkala, P. Paavolainen, P. Pulkkinen, and E. B. Riska, “Cancer risk after metal on metal and polyethylene on metal total hip arthroplasty,” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, no. 329, supplement, pp. S280–S289, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  151. O. Ben-Izhak, E. Vlodavsky, A. Ofer, A. Engel, S. Nitecky, and A. Hoffman, “Epithelioid angiosarcoma associated with a Dacron vascular graft,” American Journal of Surgical Pathology, vol. 23, no. 11, pp. 1418–1422, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  152. W. A. Burns, S. Kanhouwa, L. Tillman, N. Saini, and J. B. Herrmann, “Fibrosarcoma occurring at the site of a plastic vascular graft,” Cancer, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 66–72, 1972. View at Google Scholar
  153. R. W. Morgan and M. Elcock, “Artificial implants and soft tissue sarcomas,” Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 545–549, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  154. L. Dubeau and R. S. Fraser, “Long-term effects of pulmonary shrapnel injury. Report of a case with carcinoma and residual shrapnel tract,” Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, vol. 108, no. 5, pp. 407–409, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  155. G. Lindeman, M. J. McKay, K. L. Taubman, and A. M. Bilous, “Malignant fibrous histiocytoma developing in bone 44 years after shrapnel trauma,” Cancer, vol. 66, no. 10, pp. 2229–2232, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  156. T. Teltzrow, C. Hallermann, S. Müller, and V. Schwipper, “Foreign body-induced angiosarcoma 60 years after a shellsplinter injury,” Mund—Kiefer—und Gesichtschirurgie, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 415–418, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  157. J. Ceulemans, I. De Wever, R. Sciot, M. Debiec-Rychter, and A. T. Van Oosterom, “A sarcoma at the site of previous extravasation of adriamycin,” Sarcoma, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 135–139, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  158. S. D. Deodhar, A. G. Kuklinca, D. G. Vidt, A. L. Robertson, and J. B. Hazard, “Development of reticulum-cell sarcoma at the site of antilymphocyte globulin injection in a patient with renal transplant,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 280, no. 20, pp. 1104–1106, 1969. View at Google Scholar
  159. R. M. R. Hearn, C. J. Fleming, S. L. Edwards, and A. E. Evans, “Depot antipsychotic treatment as a cause of injection site cutaneous lymphoma,” British Journal of Dermatology, vol. 159, supplement 1, p. 92, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  160. A. Krivitzky, M. Bentata-Pessayre, F. Lejeune, P. Callard, G. Champault, and G. Delzant, “Malignant lymphoma initially of the buttocks: possible role of repeated intramuscular injections,” Annales de Médicine Interne, vol. 135, no. 3, pp. 205–207, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  161. J. H. Lee, W. J. Griffiths, and R. H. Bottomley, “Extraosseous osteogenic sarcoma following an intramuscular injection,” Cancer, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 3097–3101, 1977. View at Google Scholar
  162. M. Mayrink, A. C. Mendonça, and P. R. Da Costa, “Soft-tissue sarcoma arising from a tissue necrosis caused by an intramuscular injection of diclofenac,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 112, no. 7, pp. 1970–1971, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  163. J. Romanos, E. Gontikakis, G. Scoretsanitis, and D. Tsiftsis, “Recurrent giant granuloma of the buttock after intramuscular injection,” European Journal of Surgery, vol. 160, no. 11, pp. 643–644, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  164. K. Weinbren, R. Salm, and G. Greenberg, “Intramuscular injections of iron compounds and oncogenesis in man,” British Medical Journal, vol. 1, no. 6114, pp. 683–685, 1978. View at Google Scholar
  165. E. Eisenbud and R. M. Walter, “Cancer at insulin injection site,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 233, no. 9, p. 985, 1975. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  166. J. Fielding, “Does sarcoma occur in man after intramuscular iron?” Scandinavian Journal of Haematology, vol. 19, supplement 32, pp. 100–104, 1977. View at Google Scholar
  167. M. B. McIllmurray and M. J. S. Langman, “Soft tissue sarcomas and intramuscular injections: an epidemiological survey,” British Medical Journal, vol. 2, no. 6141, pp. 864–865, 1978. View at Google Scholar
  168. G. Mutwiri, V. Gerdts, M. Lopez, and L. A. Babiuk, “Innate immunity and new adjuvants,” OIE Revue Scientifique et Technique, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 147–156, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  169. V. E. J. C. Schijns and W. G. J. Degen, “Vaccine immunopotentiators of the future,” Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 82, no. 6, pp. 750–755, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  170. A. R. Spickler and J. A. Roth, “Adjuvants in veterinary vaccines: modes of action and adverse effects,” Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 273–281, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  171. P. G. H. Jones, G. Cowan, M. Gravendyck, T. Nagata, S. Robinson, and M. Waits, “Regulatory requirements for vaccine authorisation,” OIE Revue Scientifique et Technique, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 379–393, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  172. A. Lee, “Registration and regulation in the EC,” in Vaccines for Veterinary Applications, A. R. Peters, Ed., pp. 307–319, Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford, UK, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  173. M. J. Day, “Vaccine side effects: fact and fiction,” Veterinary Microbiology, vol. 117, no. 1, pp. 51–58, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  174. M. J. Day, “Vaccine safety in the neonatal period,” Journal of Comparative Pathology, vol. 137, no. 1, pp. S51–S56, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  175. S. S. Ellenberg and M. M. Braun, “Monitoring the safety of vaccines: assessing the risks,” Drug Safety, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 145–152, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  176. E. K. Meyer, “Vaccine-associated adverse events,” Veterinary Clinics of North America, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 493–514, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  177. G. E. Moore, A. C. DeSantis-Kerr, L. F. Guptill, N. W. Glickman, H. B. Lewis, and L. T. Glickman, “Adverse events after vaccine administration in cats: 2,560 cases (2002–2005),” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, vol. 231, no. 1, pp. 94–100, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  178. J. R. Patel and J. G. M. Heldens, “Review of companion animal viral diseases and immunoprophylaxis,” Vaccine, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 491–504, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  179. M. K. Daly, C. F. Saba, S. S. Crochik et al., “Fibrosarcoma adjacent to the site of microchip implantation in a cat,” Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 202–205, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  180. P. Buracco, M. Martano, E. Morello, and A. Ratto, “Vaccine-associated-like fibrosarcoma at the site of a deep nonabsorbable suture in a cat,” Veterinary Journal, vol. 163, no. 1, pp. 105–107, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  181. M. Vascellari, E. Melchiotti, M. A. Bozza, and F. Mutinelli, “Fibrosarcomas at presumed sites of injection in dogs: characteristics and comparison with non-vaccination site fibrosarcomas and feline post-vaccinal fibrosarcomas,” Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 286–291, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  182. M. Vascellari, F. Mutinelli, R. Cossettini, and E. Altinier, “Liposarcoma at the site of an implanted microchip in a dog,” Veterinary Journal, vol. 168, no. 2, pp. 188–190, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  183. M. Vascellari, E. Melchiotti, and F. Mutinelli, “Fibrosarcoma with typical features of postinjection sarcoma at site of microchip implant in a dog: histologic and immunohistochemical study,” Veterinary Pathology, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 545–548, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  184. S. Le Calvez, M.-F. Perron-Lepage, and R. Burnett, “Subcutaneous microchip-associated tumours in B6C3F1 mice: a retrospective study to attempt to determine their histogenesis,” Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 255–265, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  185. M. A. Miller, R. L. Aper, A. Fauber, W. E. Blevins, and J. A. Ramos-Vara, “Extraskeletal osteosarcoma associated with retained surgical sponge in a dog,” Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 224–228, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  186. M. J. Hendrick, M. H. Goldschmidt, F. S. Shofer, Y. Y. Wang, and A. P. Somlyo, “Postvaccinal sarcomas in the cat: epidemiology and electron probe microanalytical identification of aluminum,” Cancer Research, vol. 52, no. 19, pp. 5391–5394, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  187. S. J. James, M. Pogribna, B. J. Miller, B. Bolon, and L. Muskhelishvili, “Characterization of cellular response to silicone implants in rats: implications for foreign-body carcinogenesis,” Biomaterials, vol. 18, no. 9, pp. 667–675, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  188. F. Balkwill and A. Mantovani, “Inflammation and cancer: back to Virchow?” The Lancet, vol. 357, no. 9255, pp. 539–545, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  189. S. Ballaz and J. L. Mulshine, “The potential contributions of chronic inflammation to lung carcinogenesis,” Clinical Lung Cancer, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 46–62, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  190. V. Guarino, M. D. Castellone, E. Avilla, and R. M. Melillo, “Thyroid cancer and inflammation,” Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, vol. 321, no. 1, pp. 94–102, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  191. A. M. De Marzo, E. A. Platz, S. Sutcliffe et al., “Inflammation in prostate carcinogenesis,” Nature Reviews Cancer, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 256–269, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  192. E. A. Engels, “Inflammation in the development of lung cancer: epidemiological evidence,” Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 605–615, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  193. M. C. Fantini and F. Pallone, “Cytokines: from gut inflammation to colorectal cancer,” Current Drug Targets, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 375–380, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  194. B. Farrow and B. M. Evers, “Inflammation and the development of pancreatic cancer,” Surgical Oncology, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 153–169, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  195. B. Goswami, M. Rajappa, M. Sharma, and A. Sharma, “Inflammation: its role and interplay in the development of cancer, with special focus on gynecological malignancies,” International Journal of Gynecological Cancer, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 591–599, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  196. J. B. Greer and D. C. Whitcomb, “Inflammation and pancreatic cancer: an evidence-based review,” Current Opinion in Pharmacology, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 411–418, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  197. G. Lee, T. C. Walser, and S. M. Dubinett, “Chronic inflammation, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer,” Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 303–307, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  198. C. J. McKay, P. Glen, and D. C. McMillan, “Chronic inflammation and pancreatic cancer,” Best Practice and Research in Clinical Gastroenterology, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 65–73, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  199. M. M. Moore, W. Chua, K. A. Charles, and S. J. Clarke, “Inflammation and cancer: causes and consequences,” Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 87, no. 4, pp. 504–508, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  200. N. Azad, Y. Rojanasakul, and V. Vallyathan, “Inflammation and lung cancer: roles of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species,” Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health—Part B, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 1–15, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  201. J. J. Salk, S. J. Salipante, R. A. Risques et al., “Clonal expansions in ulcerative colitis identify patients with neoplasia,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 106, no. 49, pp. 20871–20876, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  202. P. Szlosarek, K. A. Charles, and F. R. Balkwill, “Tumour necrosis factor-α as a tumour promoter,” European Journal of Cancer, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 745–750, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  203. S. Vasto, G. Carruba, G. Candore, E. Italiano, D. Di Bona, and C. Caruso, “Inflammation and prostate cancer,” Future Oncology, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 637–645, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  204. G. Y. Yang, S. Taboada, and J. Liao, “Inflammatory bowel disease: a model of chronic inflammation-induced cancer,” Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.), vol. 511, pp. 193–233, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  205. D. Assimakopoulos and G. Patrikakos, “The role of gastroesophageal reflux in the pathogenesis of laryngeal carcinoma,” American Journal of Otolaryngology, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 351–357, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  206. J. C. Cendan and K. E. Behrns, “Associated neoplastic disease in inflammatory Bowel disease,” Surgical Clinics of North America, vol. 87, no. 3, pp. 659–672, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  207. L. A. Feagins, R. F. Souza, and S. J. Spechler, “Carcinogenesis in IBD: potential targets for the prevention of colorectal cancer,” Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 297–305, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  208. S. H. Itzkowitz and X. Yio, “Inflammation and cancer—IV. Colorectal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease: the role of inflammation,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 287, no. 1, pp. G7–G17, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  209. J. K. Triantafillidis, G. Nasioulas, and P. A. Kosmidis, “Colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease: epidemiology, risk factors, mechanisms of carcinogenesis and prevention strategies,” Anticancer Research, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 2727–2737, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  210. C. D. M. Fletcher, “Soft tissue sarcomas apparently arising in chronic tropical ulcers,” Histopathology, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 501–510, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  211. D. S. Dolberg, R. Hollingsworth, M. Hertle, and M. J. Bissell, “Wounding and its role in RSV-mediated tumor formation,” Science, vol. 230, no. 4726, pp. 676–678, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  212. E. Hormbrey, C. Han, A. Roberts, D. A. McGrouther, and A. L. Harris, “The relationship of human wound vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) after breast cancer surgery to circulating VEGF and angiogenesis,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 9, no. 12, pp. 4332–4339, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  213. A. Kurtz, A. Aigner, R. H. Cabal-Manzano et al., “Differential regulation of a fibroblast growth factor-binding protein during skin carcinogenesis and wound healing,” Neoplasia, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 595–602, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  214. G. M. Marshall, L. Vanhamme, W. Y. Wong, H. Su, and P. K. Vogt, “Wounding acts as a tumor promoter in chickens inoculated with avian sarcoma virus 17,” Virology, vol. 188, no. 1, pp. 373–377, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  215. M. Martins-Green and M. J. Bissell, “Localization of 9E3/CEF-4 in avian tissues: expression is absent in Rous sarcoma virus-induced tumors but is stimulated by injury,” Journal of Cell Biology, vol. 110, no. 3, pp. 581–595, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  216. M. Martins-Green, N. Boudreau, and M. J. Bissell, “Inflammation is responsible for the development of wound-induced tumors in chickens infected with Rous sarcoma virus,” Cancer Research, vol. 54, no. 16, pp. 4334–4341, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  217. S. C. Robinson and L. M. Coussens, “Soluble mediators of inflammation during tumor development,” Advances in Cancer Research, vol. 93, pp. 159–187, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  218. M. H. Sieweke, A. W. Stoker, and M. J. Bissell, “Evaluation of the cocarcinogenic effect of wounding in Rous sarcoma virus tumorigenesis,” Cancer Research, vol. 49, no. 22, pp. 6419–6424, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  219. M. H. Sieweke, N. L. Thompson, M. B. Sporn, and M. J. Bissell, “Mediation of wound-related Rous sarcoma virus tumorigenesis by TGF-β,” Science, vol. 248, no. 4963, pp. 1656–1660, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  220. H. G. R. Thompson, J. D. Mih, T. B. Krasieva, B. J. Tromberg, and S. C. George, “Epithelial-derived TGF-β2 modulates basal and wound-healing subepithelial matrix homeostasis,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 291, no. 6, pp. L1277–L1285, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  221. K. C. Flanders, “Smad3 as a mediator of the fibrotic response,” International Journal of Experimental Pathology, vol. 85, no. 2, pp. 47–64, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  222. B. Kaminska, A. Wesolowska, and M. Danilkiewicz, “TGF beta signalling and its role in tumour pathogenesis,” Acta Biochimica Polonica, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 329–337, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  223. A. Mauviel, “Transforming growth factor-beta: a key mediator of fibrosis,” Methods in Molecular Medicine, vol. 117, pp. 69–80, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  224. F. Verrechia and A. Mauviel, “Transforming growth factor-beta signalling through the Smad pathway: role in extracellular matrix gene expression and regulation,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 118, no. 2, pp. 211–215, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  225. P. R. Arany, K. C. Flanders, T. Kobayashi et al., “Smad3 deficiency alters key structural elements of the extracellular matrix and mechanotransduction of wound closure,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 103, no. 24, pp. 9250–9255, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  226. G. S. Ashcroft, X. Yang, A. B. Glick et al., “Mice lacking Smad3 show accelerated wound healing and an impaired local inflammatory response,” Nature Cell Biology, vol. 1, no. 5, pp. 260–266, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  227. F. R. Diez, A. A. Garrido, A. Sharma et al., “RasGRP1 transgenic mice develop cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas in response to skin wounding: potential role of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor,” American Journal of Pathology, vol. 175, no. 1, pp. 392–399, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  228. S. O. P. Hofer, D. Shrayer, J. S. Reichner, H. J. Hoekstra, and H. J. Wanebo, “Wound-induced tumor progression: a probable role in recurrence after tumor resection,” Archives of Surgery, vol. 133, no. 4, pp. 383–389, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  229. S. Inokuchi, T. Aoyama, K. Miura et al., “Disruption of TAK1 in hepatocytes causes hepatic injury, inflammation, fibrosis, and carcinogenesis,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 107, no. 2, pp. 844–849, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  230. J. L. Sequeira, S. Kobayasi, and M. A. M. Rodrigues, “Early and late effects of wound healing on development of colon tumours in a model of colon carcinogenesis by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine in the rat,” Pathology, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 250–252, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  231. C. H. Stuelten, A. Barbul, J. I. Busch et al., “Acute wounds accelerate tumorigenesis by a T cell-dependent mechanism,” Cancer Research, vol. 68, no. 18, pp. 7278–7282, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  232. L. Weiss, “Some effects of mechanical trauma on the development of primary cancers and their metastases,” Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 614–627, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  233. J. Kluwe, A. Mencin, and R. F. Schwabe, “Toll-like receptors, wound healing, and carcinogenesis,” Journal of Molecular Medicine, vol. 87, no. 2, pp. 125–138, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  234. S. Rakoff-Nahoum and R. Medzhitov, “Toll-like receptors and cancer,” Nature Reviews Cancer, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 57–63, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  235. H. Sarir, E. Mortaz, W. T. Janse, M. E. Givi, F. P. Nijkamp, and G. Folkerts, “IL-8 production by macrophages is synergistically enhanced when cigarette smoke is combined with TNF-α,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 79, no. 5, pp. 698–705, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  236. R. Bedwani, E. Renganathan, F. El Kwhsky et al., “Schistosomiasis and the risk of bladder cancer in Alexandria, Egypt,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 77, no. 7, pp. 1186–1189, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  237. Y. Hirao, W. J. Kim, and K. Fujimoto, “Environmental factors promoting bladder cancer,” Current Opinion in Urology, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 494–499, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  238. International Agency for Research on Cancer, Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk to Humans. Schistosomes, Liver Flukes and Helicobacter pylori, IARC Monographs vol. 61, World Health Organisation, Geneva, Switzerland, 1994.
  239. G. Jatzko, R. Kleinert, and H. Denk, “Intestinal schistosomiasis, a facultative precancerous condition? Review of the literature with reference to Schistosoma japonicum associated rectum carcinoma,” Chirurg, vol. 68, no. 7, pp. 727–731, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  240. D. A. Mayer and B. Fried, “The role of helminth infections in carcinogenesis,” Advances in Parasitology, vol. 65, pp. 239–296, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  241. D. S. Michaud, “Chronic inflammation and bladder cancer,” Urologic Oncology, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 260–268, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  242. M. H. Mostafa, S. A. Sheweita, and P. J. O'Connor, “Relationship between schistosomiasis and bladder cancer,” Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 97–111, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  243. M. P. Rosin, W. A. Anwar, and A. J. Ward, “Inflammation, chromosomal instability, and cancer: the schistosomiasis model,” Cancer Research, vol. 54, no. 7, supplement, pp. 1929s–1933s, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  244. A. Yosry, “Schistosomiasis and neoplasia,” Contributions to Microbiology, vol. 13, pp. 81–100, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  245. N. Ramchurren, K. Cooper, and I. C. Summerhayes, “Molecular events underlying schistosomiasis-related bladder cancer,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 237–244, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  246. Y. Tamimi, P. P. Bringuier, F. Smit et al., “Homozygous deletions of p16(INK4) occur frequently in bilharziasis-associated bladder cancer,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 183–187, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  247. B. J. Vennervald and K. Polman, “Helminths and malignancy,” Parasite Immunology, vol. 31, no. 11, pp. 686–696, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  248. M. J. Blaser, G. I. Perez-Perez, H. Kleanthous et al., “Infection with Helicobacter pylori strains possessing cagA is associated with an increased risk of developing adenocarcinoma of the stomach,” Cancer Research, vol. 55, no. 10, pp. 2111–2115, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  249. C. Chao and M. R. Hellmich, “Gastrin, inflammation, and carcinogenesis,” Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 33–39, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  250. A. Nomura, G. N. Stemmermann, P. H. Chyou, I. Kato, G. I. Perez-Perez, and M. J. Blaser, “Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric carcinoma among Japanese Americans in Hawaii,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 325, no. 16, pp. 1132–1136, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  251. J. Parsonnet, G. D. Friedman, D. P. Vandersteen et al., “Helicobacter pylori infection and the risk of gastric carcinoma,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 325, no. 16, pp. 1127–1131, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  252. P. Sipponen and H. Hyvärinen, “Role of Helicobacter pylori in the pathogenesis of gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric cancer,” Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, Supplement, vol. 28, no. 196, supplement, pp. 3–6, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  253. C. Stoicov, R. Saffari, X. Cai, C. Hasyagar, and J. Houghton, “Molecular biology of gastric cancer: helicobacter infection and gastric adenocarcinoma: bacterial and host factors responsible for altered growth signaling,” Gene, vol. 341, no. 1-2, pp. 1–17, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  254. S. E. Erdman, V. P. Rao, T. Poutahidis et al., “Nitric oxide and TNF-α trigger colonic inflammation and carcinogenesis in Helicobacter hepaticus-infected, Rag2-deficient mice,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 106, no. 4, pp. 1027–1032, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  255. N. Yoshida, “Inflammation and oxidative stress in gastroesophageal reflux disease,” Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 13–23, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  256. S. M. Cohen, “Role of urinary physiology and chemistry in bladder carcinogenesis,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 33, no. 9, pp. 715–730, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  257. S. M. Cohen, S. L. Johansson, L. L. Arnold, and T. A. Lawson, “Urinary tract calculi and thresholds in carcinogenesis,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 793–799, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  258. R. A. Crallan, N. T. Georgopoulos, and J. Southgate, “Experimental models of human bladder carcinogenesis,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 374–381, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  259. M. A. Dominick, M. R. White, T. P. Sanderson et al., “Urothelial carcinogenesis in the urinary bladder of male rats treated with muraglitazar, a PPAR α/γ agonist: evidence for urolithiasis as the inciting event in the mode of action,” Toxicologic Pathology, vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 903–920, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  260. M. Kaneko, K. Morimura, T. Nishikawa et al., “Different genetic alterations in rat forestomach tumors induced by genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 23, no. 10, pp. 1729–1735, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  261. R. Kroes and P. W. Wester, “Forestomach carcinogens: possible mechanisms of action,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 24, no. 10-11, pp. 1083–1089, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  262. H. Ogasawara, K. Imaida, H. Ishiwata et al., “Urinary bladder carcinogenesis induced by melamine in F344 male rats: correlation between carcinogenicity and urolith formation,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 2773–2777, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  263. M. A. Shibata, R. Hasegawa, M. Sano, T. Shirai, and S. Fukushima, “Timing effects of uracil-induced urolithiasis on amplification of second-stage promotion in rat bladder carcinogenesis,” Japanese Journal of Cancer Research, vol. 82, no. 10, pp. 1077–1084, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  264. S. Tamano, M. Hirose, H. Tanaka, E. Asakawa, K. Ogawa, and N. Ito, “Forestomach neoplasm induction in F344/DuCrj rats and B6C3F mice exposed to sesamol,” Japanese Journal of Cancer Research, vol. 83, no. 12, pp. 1279–1285, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  265. P. T. Wester and R. Kroes, “Forestomach carcinogens: pathology and relevance to man,” Toxicologic Pathology, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 165–171, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  266. J. A. Barter and J. H. Sherman, “An evaluation of the carcinogenic hazard of 1,4-dichlorobenzene based on internationally recognized criteria,” Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 64–79, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  267. K. Blumbach, A. Pähler, H. M. Deger, and W. Dekant, “Biotransformation and male rat-specific renal toxicity of diethyl ethyl- and dimethyl methylphosphonate,” Toxicological Sciences, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 24–32, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  268. S. J. Borghoff, B. G. Short, and J. A. Swenberg, “Biochemical mechanisms and pathobioloby of α(2u)-globulin nephropathy,” Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, vol. 30, pp. 349–367, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  269. D. R. Dietrich and J. A. Swenberg, “Renal carcinogenesis,” in Toxicology of the Kidney, J. B. Hook and R. S. Goldstein, Eds., pp. 495–537, Raven Press, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  270. G. C. Hard, I. S. Rodgers, K. P. Baetcke, W. L. Richards, R. E. McGaughy, and L. R. Valcovic, “Hazard evaluation of chemicals that cause accumulation of α(2u)-globulin, hyaline droplet nephropathy, and tubule neoplasia in the kidneys of male rats,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 99, pp. 313–349, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  271. R. L. Kanerva, G. M. Ridder, L. C. Stone, and C. L. Alden, “Characterization of spontaneous and decalin-induced hyaline droplets in kidneys of adult male rats,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 63–82, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  272. L. D. Lehman-McKeeman, “Male rat-specific light hydrocarbon nephropathy,” in Toxicology of the Kidney, J. B. Hook and R.S. Goldstein, Eds., pp. 477–494, Raven Press, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  273. X. Shi, V. Castranova, B. Halliwell, and V. Vallyathan, “Reactive oxygen species and silica-induced carcinogenesis,” Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health—Part B, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 181–197, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  274. J. A. Svenberg, D. R. Dietrich, R. M. McClain, and S. M. Cohen, “Species-specific mechanisms of carcinogenesis,” in Mechanisms of Carcinogenesis in Risk Identification, H. Vainio, P. N. Magee, D. B. McGregor, and A. J. McMichael, Eds., pp. 477–500, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Geneva, Switzerland, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  275. S. D. Turner, H. Tinwell, W. Piegorsch, P. Schmezer, and J. Ashby, “The male rat carcinogens limonene and sodium saccharin are not mutagenic to male Big Blue rats,” Mutagenesis, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 329–332, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  276. N. Azad, Y. Rojanasakul, and V. Vallyathan, “Inflammation and lung cancer: roles of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species,” Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health—Part B, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 1–15, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  277. M. Dougan and G. Dranoff, “Inciting inflammation: the RAGE about tumor promotion,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 205, no. 2, pp. 267–270, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  278. A. Federico, F. Morgillo, C. Tuccillo, F. Ciardiello, and C. Loguercio, “Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress in human carcinogenesis,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 121, no. 11, pp. 2381–2386, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  279. T. O. Frommel and E. J. Zarling, “Chronic inflammation and cancer: potential role of Bcl-2 gene family members as regulators of cellular antioxidant status,” Medical Hypotheses, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 27–30, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  280. T. A. Gonda, S. Tu, and T. C. Wang, “Chronic inflammation, the tumor microenvironment and carcinogenesis,” Cell Cycle, vol. 8, no. 13, pp. 2005–2013, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  281. J. E. Goodman, L. J. Hofseth, S. P. Hussain, and C. C. Harris, “Nitric oxide and p53 in cancer-prone chronic inflammation and oxyradical overload disease,” Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 3–9, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  282. N. Khansari, Y. Shakiba, and M. Mahmoudi, “Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress as a major cause of age-related diseases and cancer,” Recent Patents on Inflammation and Allergy Drug Discovery, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 73–80, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  283. J. K. Kundu and Y. J. Surh, “Inflammation: gearing the journey to cancer,” Mutation Research, vol. 659, no. 1-2, pp. 15–30, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  284. M. Macarthur, G. L. Hold, and E. M. El-Omar, “Inflammation and Cancer II. Role of chronic inflammation and cytokine gene polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal malignancy,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 286, no. 4, pp. G515–G520, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  285. A. Mantovani, P. Allavena, A. Sica, and F. Balkwill, “Cancer-related inflammation,” Nature, vol. 454, no. 7203, pp. 436–444, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  286. L. B. Meira, J. M. Bugni, S. L. Green et al., “DNA damage induced by chronic inflammation contributes to colon carcinogenesis in mice,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 118, no. 7, pp. 2516–2525, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  287. S. F. Moss and M. J. Blaser, “Mechanisms of disease: inflammation and the origins of cancer,” Nature Clinical Practice Oncology, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 90–97, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  288. H. Ohshima, M. Tatemichi, and T. Sawa, “Chemical basis of inflammation-induced carcinogenesis,” Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 417, no. 1, pp. 3–11, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  289. C. Porta, P. Larghi, M. Rimoldi et al., “Cellular and molecular pathways linking inflammation and cancer,” Immunobiology, vol. 214, no. 9-10, pp. 761–777, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  290. E. Shacter and S. A. Weitzman, “Chronic inflammation and cancer,” Oncology, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 217–230, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  291. T. T. Tan and L. M. Coussens, “Humoral immunity, inflammation and cancer,” Current Opinion in Immunology, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 209–216, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  292. R. Visconti and D. Grieco, “New insights on oxidative stress in cancer,” Current Opinion in Drug Discovery and Development, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 240–245, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  293. F. D'Acquisto, F. Maione, and M. Pederzoli-Ribeil, “From IL-15 to IL-33: the never-ending list of new players in inflammation. Is it time to forget the humble aspirin and move ahead?” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 79, no. 4, pp. 525–534, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  294. R. Katayama, M. K. Huelsmeyer, A. K. Marr, I. D. Kurzman, D. H. Thamm, and D. M. Vail, “Imatinib mesylate inhibits platelet-derived growth factor activity and increases chemosensitivity in feline vaccine-associated sarcoma,” Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 25–33, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  295. S. Mocellin and D. Nitti, “TNF and cancer: the two sides of the coin,” Frontiers in Bioscience, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 2774–2783, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  296. R. A. Roberts and I. Kimber, “Cytokines in non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogenesis,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 1397–1401, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  297. R. A. Roberts, N. H. James, S. Cosulich, S. C. Hasmall, and G. Orphanides, “Role of cytokines in non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogenesis: cause or effect?” Toxicology Letters, vol. 120, no. 1–3, pp. 301–306, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  298. M. Schäfer and S. Werner, “Cancer as an overhealing wound: an old hypothesis revisited,” Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 628–638, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  299. J. Scheller, N. Ohnesorge, and S. Rose-John, “Interleukin-6 trans-signalling in chronic inflammation and cancer,” Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, vol. 63, no. 5, pp. 321–329, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  300. G. Sethi, B. Sung, and B. B. Aggarwal, “TNF: a master switch for inflammation to cancer,” Frontiers in Bioscience, vol. 13, no. 13, pp. 5094–5107, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  301. D. Wang, R. N. DuBois, and A. Richmond, “The role of chemokines in intestinal inflammation and cancer,” Current Opinion in Pharmacology, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 688–696, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  302. S. J. Flavell, T. Z. Hou, S. Lax, A. D. Filer, M. Salmon, and C. D. Buckley, “Fibroblasts as novel therapeutic targets in chronic inflammation,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 153, no. 1, pp. S241–S246, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  303. J. A. Van Ginderachter, K. Movahedi, J. Van Den Bossche, and P. De Baetselier, “Macrophages, PPARs, and cancer,” PPAR Research, vol. 2008, Article ID 169414, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  304. T. Lawrence and D. W. Gilroy, “Chronic inflammation: a failure of resolution?” International Journal of Experimental Pathology, vol. 88, no. 2, pp. 85–94, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  305. S. Rajput and A. Wilber, “Roles of inflammation in cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis,” Frontiers in Bioscience, vol. 2, pp. 176–183, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  306. M. Quante and T. C. Wang, “Inflammation and stem cells in gastrointestinal carcinogenesis,” Physiology, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 350–359, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  307. B. J. Rollins, “Inflammatory chemokines in cancer growth and progression,” European Journal of Cancer, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 760–767, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  308. P. Hainaut, “The tumor suppressor protein p53: a receptor to genotoxic stress that controls cell growth and survival,” Current Opinion in Oncology, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 76–82, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  309. M. Ljungman and D. P. Lane, “Transcription—guarding the genome by sensing DNA damage,” Nature Reviews Cancer, vol. 4, no. 9, pp. 727–737, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  310. C. Méplan, M. J. Richard, and P. Hainaut, “Redox signalling and transition metals in the control of the p53 pathway,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 25–33, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  311. O. Pluquet and P. Hainaut, “Genotoxic and non-genotoxic pathways of p53 induction,” Cancer Letters, vol. 174, no. 1, pp. 1–15, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  312. A. Quiñones and N. G. Rainov, “Identification of genotoxic stress in human cells by fluorescent monitoring of p53 expression,” Mutation Research, vol. 494, no. 1-2, pp. 73–85, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  313. T. Andoh, “Signal transduction pathways leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induced by DNA topoisomerase poisons,” Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 181–188, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  314. S. C. Hasmall and R. A. Roberts, “The perturbation of apoptosis and mitosis by drugs and xenobiotics,” Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 63–70, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  315. M. B. Kastan, C. E. Canman, and C. J. Leonard, “P53, cell cycle control and apoptosis: implications for cancer,” Cancer and Metastasis Reviews, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 3–15, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  316. E. Kim, A. Giese, and W. Deppert, “Wild-type p53 in cancer cells: when a guardian turns into a blackguard,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 11–20, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  317. A. Mally and J. K. Chipman, “Non-genotoxic carcinogens: early effects on gap junctions, cell proliferation and apoptosis in the rat,” Toxicology, vol. 180, no. 3, pp. 233–248, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  318. D. W. Meek, “P53 regulation and activity,” Toxicology, vol. 240, no. 3, pp. 129–153, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  319. M. E. Perry and A. J. Levine, “Tumor-suppressor p53 and the cell cycle,” Current Opinion in Genetics and Development, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 50–54, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  320. K. J. L. Riley and L. J. Maher, “p53-RNA interactions: new clues in an old mystery,” RNA, vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 1825–1833, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  321. R. A. Roberts, “Non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogenesis: suppression of apoptosis by peroxisome proliferators,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 804, pp. 588–611, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  322. F. Rodier, J. Campisi, and D. Bhaumik, “Two faces of p53: aging and tumor suppression,” Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 35, no. 22, pp. 7475–7484, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  323. B. F. Trump, I. K. Berezesky, S. H. Chang, and P. C. Phelps, “The pathways of cell death: oncosis, apoptosis, and necrosis,” Toxicologic Pathology, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 82–88, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  324. K. H. Vousden, “Outcomes of p53 activation—spoilt for choice,” Journal of Cell Science, vol. 119, no. 24, pp. 5015–5020, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  325. M. R. Alison and C. E. Sarraf, “Apoptosis: regulation and relevance to toxicology,” Human and Experimental Toxicology, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 234–247, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  326. J. T. Isaacs, “Role of programmed cell death in carcinogenesis,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 101, no. 5, supplement, pp. 27–33, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  327. O. Ndozangue-Touriguine, J. Hamelin, and J. Bréard, “Cytoskeleton and apoptosis,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 76, no. 1, pp. 11–18, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  328. A. H. Wyllie, “Apoptosis and carcinogenesis,” European Journal of Cell Biology, vol. 73, no. 3, pp. 189–197, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  329. A. Benzinger, N. Muster, H. B. Koch, J. R. Yates, and H. Hermeking, “Targeted proteomic analysis of 14-3-3σ, a p53 effector commonly silenced in cancer,” Molecular and Cellular Proteomics, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 785–795, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  330. R. A. Buzzell, “Carcinogenesis of cutaneous malignancies,” Dermatologic Surgery, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 209–215, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  331. A. V. Gudkov and E. A. Komarova, “Dangerous habits of a security guard: the two faces of p53 as a drug target,” Human Molecular Genetics, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. R67–R72, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  332. D. P. Guimaraes and P. Hainaut, “TP53: a key gene in human cancer,” Biochimie, vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 83–93, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  333. A. Honda, R. Abe, Y. Yoshihisa et al., “Deficient deletion of apoptotic cells by macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) overexpression accelerates photocarcinogenesis,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 1597–1605, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  334. J. E. Kucab, D. H. Phillips, and V. M. Arlt, “Linking environmental carcinogen exposure to TP53 mutations in human tumours using the human TP53 knock-in (Hupki) mouse model,” FEBS Journal, vol. 277, no. 12, pp. 2567–2583, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  335. A. Petitjean, M. I. W. Achatz, A. L. Borresen-Dale, P. Hainaut, and M. Olivier, “TP53 mutations in human cancers: functional selection and impact on cancer prognosis and outcomes,” Oncogene, vol. 26, no. 15, pp. 2157–2165, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  336. A. Petitjean, E. Mathe, S. Kato et al., “Impact of mutant p53 functional properties on TP53 mutation patterns and tumor phenotype: lessons from recent developments in the IARC TP53 database,” Human Mutation, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 622–629, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  337. C. P. Rubbi and J. Milner, “P53: gatekeeper, caretaker or both?” in 25 Years of p53 Research, P. Hainaut and K. G. Wiman, Eds., pp. 233–253, Springer, London, UK, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  338. I. Silins, N. Finnberg, A. Ståhl, J. Högberg, and U. Stenius, “Reduced ATM kinase activity and an attenuated p53 response to DNA damage in carcinogen-induced preneoplastic hepatic lesions in the rat,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 22, no. 12, pp. 2023–2031, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  339. T. Soussi and K. G. Wiman, “Shaping genetic alterations in human cancer: the p53 mutation paradigm,” Cancer Cell, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 303–312, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  340. C. Potten and J. Wilson, “The judge, the jury and the executioner—the genes that control cell death: p53—the guardian of the genome in embryos and adults,” in Apoptosis. The Life and Death of Cells, pp. 91–114, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  341. B. Burnworth, S. Arendt, S. Muffler et al., “The multi-step process of human skin carcinogenesis: a role for p53, cyclin D1, hTERT, p16, and TSP-1,” European Journal of Cell Biology, vol. 86, no. 11-12, pp. 763–780, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  342. G. S. Buzard, “Studies of oncogene activation and tumor suppressor gene inactivation in normal and neoplastic rodent tissue,” Mutation Research, vol. 365, no. 1–3, pp. 43–58, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  343. S. Chevalier and R. A. Roberts, “G1-arrested FaO cells re-enter the cell cycle upon stimulation with the rodent non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogen nafenopin,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 1209–1213, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  344. J. J. Cohen, M. D. Devore, M. Cikara, and E. A. Dowling, “Cell death in immune, inflammatory and stress responses,” in Essentials of Apoptosis. A Guide for Basic and Clinical Research, X.-M. Yin and Z. Dong, Eds., pp. 201–210, Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, USA, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  345. S. M. Cohen, “Cell proliferation and carcinogenesis,” Drug Metabolism Reviews, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 339–357, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  346. P. Correa and M. J. S. Miller, “Carcinogenesis, apoptosis and cell proliferation,” British Medical Bulletin, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 151–162, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  347. P. J. Duerksen-Hughes, J. Yang, and O. Ozcan, “p53 induction as a genotoxic test for twenty-five chemicals undergoing in vivo carcinogenicity testing,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 107, no. 10, pp. 805–812, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  348. H. B. Jones, S. R. Eldridge, B. E. Butterworth, and J. R. Foster, “Measures of cell replication in risk/safety assessment of xenobiotic-induced, nongenotoxic carcinogenesis,” Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 117–127, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  349. J. C. Semenza and L. H. Weasel, “Molecular epidemiology in environmental health: the potential of tumor suppressor gene p53 as a biomarker,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 105, supplement 1, pp. 155–163, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  350. J. C. Neil, E. R. Cameron, and E. W. Baxter, “p53 and tumour viruses: catching the guardian off-guard,” Trends in Microbiology, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 115–120, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  351. J. G. Christensen, T. L. Goldsworthy, and R. C. Cattley, “Dysregulation of apoptosis by c-myc in transgenic hepatocytes and effects of growth factors and nongenotoxic carcinogens,” Molecular Carcinogenesis, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 273–284, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  352. D. W. Macy and M. J. Hendrick, “The potential role of inflammation in the development of postvaccinal sarcomas in cats,” The Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small animal practice, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 103–109, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  353. M. J. Day, H. A. Schoon, J. P. Magnol et al., “A kinetic study of histopathological changes in the subcutis of cats injected with non-adjuvanted and adjuvanted multi-component vaccines,” Vaccine, vol. 25, no. 20, pp. 4073–4084, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  354. F. Jelínek, “Postinflammatory sarcoma in cats,” Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology, vol. 55, no. 2-3, pp. 167–172, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  355. M. Kool, T. Soullié, M. van Nimwegen et al., “Alum adjuvant boosts adaptive immunity by inducing uric acid and activating inflammatory dendritic cells,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 205, no. 4, pp. 869–882, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  356. V. Tittes-Rittershaus, H. de Vries, and H. de Jong, “Local reaction studies in rabbits and dogs,” in Trends in Pharmacology and Toxicology, Proceedings of the 1st European Congress, pp. 41–46, Zeist, The Netherlands, September 1979.
  357. E. Murasugi, H. Koie, M. Okano, T. Watanabe, and R. Asano, “Histological reactions to microchip implants in dogs,” Veterinary Record, vol. 153, no. 11, pp. 328–330, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  358. M. Linder, S. Hüther, and M. Reinacher, “In vivo reactions in mice and in vitro reactions in feline cells to implantable microchip transponders with different surface materials,” Veterinary Record, vol. 165, no. 2, pp. 45–50, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  359. G. N. Rao and J. Edmondson, “Tissue reaction to an implantable identification device in mice,” Toxicologic Pathology, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 412–416, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  360. H. Tazawa, M. Tatemichi, T. Sawa et al., “Oxidative and nitrative stress caused by subcutaneous implantation of a foreign body accelerates sarcoma development in Trp53+/ mice,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 191–198, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  361. N. Banerji and S. Kanjilal, “Somatic alterations of the p53 tumor suppressor gene in vaccine-associated feline sarcoma,” American Journal of Veterinary Research, vol. 67, no. 10, pp. 1766–1772, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  362. N. Banerji, V. Kapur, and S. Kanjilal, “Association of germ-line polymorphisms in the feline p53 gene with genetic predisposition to vaccine-associated feline sarcoma,” Journal of Heredity, vol. 98, no. 5, pp. 421–427, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  363. P. R. Nambiar, M. L. Jackson, J. A. Ellis, B. J. Chelack, B. A. Kidney, and D. M. Haines, “Immunohistochemical detection of tumor suppressor gene p53 protein in feline injection site-associated sarcomas,” Veterinary Pathology, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 236–238, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  364. A. Nieto, M. A. Sánchez, E. Martínez, and E. Rollán, “Immunohistochemical expression of p53, fibroblast growth factor-b, and transforming growth factor-α in feline vaccine-associated sarcomas,” Veterinary Pathology, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 651–658, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  365. S. Cerda and S. A. Weitzman, “Influence of oxygen radical injury on DNA methylation,” Mutation Research, vol. 386, no. 2, pp. 141–152, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  366. R. A. Floyd, “Role of oxygen free radicals in carcinogenesis and brain ischemia,” FASEB Journal, vol. 4, no. 9, pp. 2587–2597, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  367. B. D. Goldstein and G. Witz, “Free radicals and carcinogenesis,” Free Radical Research Communications, vol. 11, no. 1–3, pp. 3–10, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  368. M. E. Kerr, C. M. Bender, and E. J. Monti, “An introductioon to oxygen free radicals,” Heart and Lung, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 200–209, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  369. J. E. Klaunig, Y. Xu, J. S. Isenberg et al., “The role of oxidative stress in chemical carcinogenesis,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 106, no. 1, supplement, pp. 289–295, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  370. V. D. Moyer, C. A. Cistulli, C. A. Vaslet, and A. B. Kane, “Oxygen radicals and asbestos carcinogenesis,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 102, no. 10, supplement, pp. 131–136, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  371. L. Nasir, G. R. Rutteman, S. W. J. Reid, C. Schulze, and D. J. Argyle, “Analysis of p53 mutational events and MDM2 amplification in canine soft-tissue sarcomas,” Cancer Letters, vol. 174, no. 1, pp. 83–89, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  372. B. Mayr, J. Blauensteiner, A. Edlinger et al., “Presence of p53 mutations in feline neoplasms,” Research in Veterinary Science, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 63–70, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  373. A. Setoguchi, T. Sato, K. Minehata et al., “Aberrations of the p53 tumor suppressor gene in various tumours in dogs,” American Journal of Veterinary Research, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 433–439, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  374. S. Liu, L. Xu, T. Zhang, G. Ren, and Z. Yang, “Oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by nanosized titanium dioxide in PC12 cells,” Toxicology, vol. 267, no. 1–3, pp. 172–177, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  375. K. C. Sorensen, B. E. Kitchell, D. J. Schaeffer, and P. E. Mardis, “Expression of matrix metalloproteinases in feline vaccine site-associated sarcomas,” American Journal of Veterinary Research, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 373–379, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  376. A. Raz, G. Levine, and Y. Khomiak, “Acute local inflammation potentiates tumor growth in mice,” Cancer Letters, vol. 148, no. 2, pp. 115–120, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  377. P. J. A. Borm and K. Driscoll, “Particles, inflammation and respiratory tract carcinogenesis,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 88, no. 1–3, pp. 109–113, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  378. D. W. Kamp, “Asbestos-induced lung diseases: an update,” Translational Research, vol. 153, no. 4, pp. 143–152, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  379. V. L. Kinnula, “Oxidant and antioxidant mechanisms of lung disease caused by asbestos fibres,” European Respiratory Journal, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 706–716, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  380. C. B. Manning, V. Vallyathan, and B. T. Mossman, “Diseases caused by asbestos: mechanisms of injury and disease development,” International Immunopharmacology, vol. 2, no. 2-3, pp. 191–200, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  381. H. Nagai and S. Toyokuni, “Biopersistent fiber-induced inflammation and carcinogenesis: lessons learned from asbestos toward safety of fibrous nanomaterials,” Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 502, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  382. M. Carbone and C. W. M. Bedrossian, “The pathogenesis of mesothelioma,” Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 56–60, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  383. R. T. Carter, C. Giudice, R. R. Dubielzig, and C. M. H. Colitz, “Telomerase activity with concurrent loss of cell cycle regulation in feline post-traumatic ocular sarcomas,” Journal of Comparative Pathology, vol. 133, no. 4, pp. 235–245, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  384. R. R. Dubielzig, “Ocular neoplasia in small animals,” Veterinary Clinics of North America, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 837–848, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  385. R. R. Dubielzig, “Ocular sarcoma following trauma in three cats,” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, vol. 184, no. 5, pp. 578–581, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  386. C. J. Zeiss, E. M. Johnson, and R. R. Dubielzig, “Feline intraocular tumors may arise from transformation of lens epithelium,” Veterinary Pathology, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 355–362, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  387. C. M. Bell, T. Schwarz, and R. R. Dubielzig, “Diagnostic features of feline restrictive orbital myofibroblastic sarcoma,” Veterinary Pathology. In press.
  388. B. S. Groskopf, R. R. Dubielzig, and S. L. Beaumont, “Orbital extraskeletal osteosarcoma following enucleation in a cat: a case report,” Veterinary Ophthalmology, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 179–183, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  389. U. Heininger, “A risk-benefit analysis of vaccination,” Vaccine, vol. 27, no. 6, supplement, pp. G9–G12, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed