Table of Contents
ISRN Surgery
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 276908, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2011/276908
Review Article

Cerebral Melanoma Metastases: A Critical Review on Diagnostic Methods and Therapeutic Options

Neurosurgery Department, Instituto de Neurologia de Curitiba, Jeremias Maciel Perretto Street, 300 Ecoville, Curitiba, PR 81210-310, Brazil

Received 18 February 2011; Accepted 14 April 2011

Academic Editor: S. Nitecki

Copyright © 2011 Carlos R. Goulart et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. V. Chiarion-Sileni, R. Murr, and J. Pigozzo, “Brain metastases from malignant melanoma,” Oncology, vol. 13, pp. 170–185, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  2. A. A. Tarhini and S. S. Agarwala, “Management of brain metastases in patients with melanoma,” Current Opinion in Oncology, vol. 16, pp. 161–166, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  3. J. H. Galicich, “Intracranial metastasis of malignant tumors—the classification of parenchymal type, leptomeningeal type and diffuse type, and its clinical significance,” No Shinkei Geka, vol. 6, pp. 29–37, 1978. View at Google Scholar
  4. P. D. Boasberg, S. J. O'Day, and T. S. Kristedja, “Biochemotherapy for metastatic melanoma with limited central nervous system involvement,” Oncology, vol. 64, pp. 328–335, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  5. A. Schmittel, T. Proebstle, and R. Engenhart-Cabillic, “Brain metastases following interleukin-2 plus interferon-alpha-2a therapy: a follow-up study in 94 stage IV melanoma patients,” European Journal of Cancer, vol. 39, pp. 476–480, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  6. J. G. Douglas and K. Margolin, “The treatment of brain metastases from malignant melanoma,” Seminars in Oncology, vol. 29, pp. 518–524, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  7. G. Cohn-Cedermark, E. Månsson-Brahme, L. E. Rutqvist, O. Larsson, H. Johansson, and U. Ringborg, “Central nervous system metastases of cutaneous malignant melanoma—a population-based study,” Acta Oncologica, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 463–470, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. Gottschalk, S. H. Döpel, J. Schulz, M. Fuchs, and H. Martin, “Significance of immunohistochemistry in neuro-oncology. V. Keratin as a marker for epithelial differentiation of primary and secondary intracranial and intraspinal tumors,” Zentralblatt fur Allgemeine Pathologie und Pathologische Anatomie, vol. 133, no. 2, pp. 133–145, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. S. Saha, M. Meyer, E. T. Krementz et al., “Prognostic evaluation of intracranial metastasis in malignant melanoma,” Annals of Surgical Oncology, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 38–44, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. N. G. Rainov and W. Burkert, “Miliary brain metastases from malignant melanoma,” Zentralblatt fur Neurochirurgie, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 20–24, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. G. Cohn-Cedermark, E. Månsson-Brahme, L. E. Rutqvist, O. Larsson, H. Johansson, and U. Ringborg, “Central nervous system metastases of cutaneous malignant melanoma: a population-based study,” Acta Oncologica, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 463–470, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. D. E. Bullard and H. F. Seigler, “Central nervous system metastases in malignant melanoma,” Neurosurgery, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 26–30, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. D. Marchetti, “Specific degradation of subendothelial matrix proteoglycans by brain-metastatic melanoma and brain endothelial cell heparanases,” Journal of Cellular Physiology, vol. 172, no. 3, pp. 334–342, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. D. Marchetti, Y. Denkins, J. Reiland et al., “Brain-metastatic melanoma: a neurotrophic perspective,” Pathology and Oncology Research, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 147–158, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. B. Kusters, J. R. Westphal, and D. Smits, “The pattern of metastasis of human melanoma to the central nervous system is not influenced by integrand alpha(v)beta(3) expression,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 92, pp. 176–180, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  16. S. Oberndorfer, T. Schmal, H. Lahrmann, S. Urbanits, K. Lindner, and W. Grisold, “The frequency of seizures in patients with primary brain tumors or cerebral metastases. An evaluation from the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Neurooncology and the Department of Neurology, Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, ViennaHäufigkeit von epileptischen anfällen bei patienten mit primären hirntumoren oder zerebralen metastasen: eine untersuchung des Ludwig Boltzmann Institutes Für Neuroonkologie und der Neurologischen Abteilung des Kaiser Franz Josef Spitals in Wien,” Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift, vol. 114, no. 21-22, pp. 911–916, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. I. J. Fidler, G. Schackert, R. D. Zhang, R. Radinsky, and T. Fujimaki, “The biology of melanoma brain metastasis,” Cancer and Metastasis Reviews, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 387–400, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. O. Merimsky, I. Reider-Groswasser, M. Inbar, F. Kovner, and S. Chaitchik, “Cerebral metastatic melanoma: correlation between clinical and CT findings,” Melanoma Research, vol. 2, no. 5-6, pp. 385–391, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. K. N. Choi, H. R. Withers, and M. Rotman, “Intracranial metastases from melanoma. Clinical features and treatment by accelerated fractionation,” Cancer, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. L. A. Weisberg, “Computerized tomographic findings in intracranial metastatic malignant melanoma,” Computerized Radiology, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 365–372, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. S. Kremer, S. Grand, F. Berger et al., “Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI: differentiating melanoma and renal carcinoma metastases from high-grade astrocytomas and other metastases,” Neuroradiology, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 44–49, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. W. W. Woodruff Jr., W. T. Djang, R. E. McLendon, E. R. Heinz, and D. R. Voorhees, “Intracerebral malignant melanoma: high-field-strength MR imaging,” Radiology, vol. 165, no. 1, pp. 209–213, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. A. Boppart, M. E. Brezinski, C. Pitris, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for neurosurgical imaging of human intracortical melanoma,” Neurosurgery, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 834–841, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. Y. Mishima, Y. Imahori, C. Honda, J. Hiratsuka, S. Ueda, and T. Ido, “In vivo diagnosis of human malignant melanoma with positron emission tomography using specific melanoma-seeking F-DOPA analogue,” Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol. 33, no. 1-2, pp. 163–169, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. S. Nagel, M. Ichise, S. P. Mueller et al., “Increased iofetamine I 123 brain uptake in metastatic melanoma,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 45, no. 10, pp. 1126–1128, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. R. P. Moseley, A. G. Davies, S. P. Bourne et al., “Neoplastic meningitis in malignant melanoma: diagnosis with monoclonal antibodies,” Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, vol. 52, no. 7, pp. 881–886, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. Weller, A. Stevens, N. Sommer, and H. Wietholter, “Intrathecal IgM response in disseminated cerebrospinal metastasis from malignant melanoma,” Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 55–59, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. D. S. B. Hoon, C. T. Kuo, R. A. Wascher, P. Fournier, HE. J. Wang, and S. J. O'Day, “Molecular detection of metastatic melanoma cells in cerebrospinal fluid in melanoma patients,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 117, no. 2, pp. 375–378, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. C. Boaziz, J. L. Breau, J. F. Morere, and L. Israel, “Brain metastases of malignant melanoma,” Bulletin du Cancer, vol. 78, no. 4, pp. 347–353, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. V. Mingione, M. Oliveira, D. Prasad, M. Steiner, and L. Steiner, “Gamma surgery for melanoma metastases in the brain,” Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 96, no. 3, pp. 544–551, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. O. Merimsky, M. Inbar, I. Reider-Groswasser, and S. Chaitchik, “Brain metastases of malignant melanoma in interferon complete responders: clinical and radiological observations,” Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 137–140, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. L. D. Feldman, L. G. Feun, and R. S. Benjamin, “A phase II trial of PCNU in patients with malignant melanoma and central nervous system metastases,” American Journal of Clinical Oncology: Cancer Clinical Trials, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 215–217, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. S. Frick, S. Lischner, F. Rosien et al., “Temozolomide as therapeutic option for patients with metastatic melanoma and poor prognosisTemozolomid als therapieoption bei patienten mit fernmetastasiertem melanom und ungünstiger prognose,” Hautarzt, vol. 53, no. 10, pp. 659–665, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. S. S. Agarwala and J. M. Kirkwood, “Temozolomide in combination with interferon α-2b in patients with metastatic melanoma: a phase I dose-escalation study,” Cancer, vol. 97, no. 1, pp. 121–127, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. K. Margolin, M. Atkins, J. Thompson et al., “Temozolomide and whole brain irradiation in melanoma metastatic to the brain: a phase II trial of the Cytokine Working Group,” Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology, vol. 128, no. 4, pp. 214–218, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. G. C. De Gast, D. Batchelor, M. J. Kersten et al., “Temozolomide followed by combined immunotherapy with GM-CSF, low-dose IL2 and IFNα in patients with metastatic melanoma,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 88, no. 2, pp. 175–180, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. L. G. Feun, Y. Y. Lee, C. Plager et al., “Intracarotid cisplatin-based chemotherapy in patients with malignant melanoma and central nervous system (CNS) metastases,” American Journal of Clinical Oncology: Cancer Clinical Trials, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 448–451, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. J. Schachter, B. Brenner, E. Fenig, R. Gutman, A. Sulkes, and H. Gutman, “Patterns of failure in patients with malignant melanoma treated with high-dose interferon-α2b in the adjuvant setting,” Melanoma Research, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 93–96, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. I. Fedorcsak, L. Sipos, A. Horvath, G. Kontra, L. Bognar, and E. Osztie, “Multiple intracranial melanoma metastases treated with surgery and radiosurgery with long term control: a case report,” Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 173–176, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. P. D. Brown, C. A. Brown, B. E. Pollock et al., “Stereotactic radiosurgery for patients with “radioresistant” brain metastases,” Neurosurgery, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 656–667, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. R. F. Barth, W. Yang, R. T. Bartus et al., “Neutron capture therapy of intracerebral melanoma: enhanced survival and cure after blood-brain barrier opening to improve delivery of boronophenylalanine,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 858–868, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. S. Retsas and A. R. Gershuny, “Central nervous system involvement in malignant melanoma,” Cancer, vol. 61, no. 9, pp. 1926–1934, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus