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This article has been retracted as it was submitted for publication without the acknowledgement of Biofuel laboratory, CIAE Bhopal. Additionally, it was found to contain a substantial amount of material from the Proceeding, S. Gangil, A. K. Dubey, “Thermo gravimetric properties of Cashew shell cake” Proceedings of the 44th Annual Convention & Symposium of ISAE, New Delhi, India, IARI, pp. 4.17, January 2010.

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  1. A. Mohod, S. Jain, and A. Powar, “Cashew nut shell waste: availability in small-scale cashew processing industries and its fuel properties for gasification,” ISRN Renewable Energy, vol. 2011, Article ID 346191, 4 pages, 2011.
ISRN Renewable Energy
Volume 2011, Article ID 346191, 4 pages
Research Article

Cashew Nut Shell Waste: Availability in Small-Scale Cashew Processing Industries and Its Fuel Properties for Gasification

1Department of Renewable Energy Sources, College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Dr.BSKKV, Dapoli-415712, Dist.Ratnagiri (MS), India
2Department of Renewable Energy Sources, CTAE, MPUAT Udaipur-313003, Rajasthan, India
3B. S. Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli-415712, Dist.Ratnagiri (MS), India

Received 24 June 2011; Accepted 13 July 2011

Academic Editors: K. Kaygusuz and C. J. Koroneos

Copyright © 2011 Atul Mohod et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The energy and mass flow of the steam cooking operation of three readily defined small-scale cashew processing industries was studied to estimate the availability of cashew nut shell. The proximate analysis of cashew shell waste was carried out using ASTMD 73–75 method. The calorific value of the cashew shell was carried out using bomb calorimeter (ASTME 711). The thermogravimetric analysis of the cashew shell was carried out using TG-FTIR with 10C/minute heating rate. The study revealed that, the small-scale cashew processing industries followed steam-cooking process with average energy consumption accounted to be 2969.7 MJ per 1000 kg of raw cashew seed. The cashew shell waste generated in small-scale cashew processing industries was found to be 67.5% of total weight of cashew seed, which can be utilized as fuel for thermal energy supply. The average higher calorific value of the cashew nut shell was found to be 4890 kcal/kg. The thermogravimetric analysis revealed that 85% weight of cashew nut shell has been degraded at 500C and in 13 minutes. The availability and fuel analysis of the cashew shell as a fuel revealed its suitability as a supplementary fuel for thermal application through pyrolysis in the industry.