International Scholarly Research Notices / 2011 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Determination of Alterations in Forest Condition Using Various Measures of Land Use Change along an Urban-Rural Gradient in the West Georgia Piedmont, USA

Table 1

Definitions for each of the variables measured in “West Georgia”.

VariablesDefinitions

Total number of trees >10 cm dbh/haTotal number of mature trees (>10 cm dbh) per hectare (ha)
Total number of hardwoods/haTotal number of mature hardwoods (>10 cm dbh) per ha
Total number of pines/haTotal number of mature pines (>10 cm dbh) per ha
Hardwood : pine ratioRatio of hardwood to pine trees per ha
Total number of tree speciesTotal number of different tree species measured at each site
Mean dbh (cm) of all mature treesMean dbh (in cm) of all mature trees (>10 cm) measured
Basal area (m2/ha)Basal area (m2/ha)
Median age of standMedian age of forest stand as measured by six dominant pines at each site
% Peak canopy coverpeak canopy cover percentage at each site (measured in mid-June)
Mean upper canopy height (m)Mean height of upper canopy at each site (measured by six dominant trees in main canopy)
Mean subcanopy height (m)Mean height of subcanopy at each site (measured by six average trees in secondary canopy)
Total number of trees 2.5–10 cm dbh/haTotal number of trees (2.5–10 cm dbh) per ha
Mean number of saplings and shrubs 0.635–2.5 cm/haMean number of saplings and shrubs (0.635–2.5 cm diameter and at least 1 m in height) per ha
Mean number of seedlings <0.635 cm/haMean number of seedlings (<0.635 cm diameter and <1 m in height) per ha
% Woody stems/haPercentage of groundcover occupied by small woody stems (<0.635 cm diameter) per ha
% Herbaceous plants/haPercentage of groundcover occupied by herbaceous plants per ha
% Leaf litter/haPercentage of groundcover occupied by leaf litter per ha
% Bare ground/haPercentage of groundcover occupied by bare ground (or dirt) per ha
% Trees with insect injuryPercentage of trees with evidence of insect injury
%Trees with disease injuryPercentage of trees with evidence of disease injury
% Trees with mechanical damage injuryPercentage of trees with evidence of mechanical injury
% Insect + disease + mech damage for all treesPercentage of trees with evidence of insect, disease, and/or mechanical injury
% Trees with lichensPercentage of trees with lichen incidence (presence versus absence)
Mean number of lichen species per treeMean number of lichen species per tree
Mean lichen abundance rank for all hardwoodsMean lichen abundance rank for all hardwoods (percentage of cover: 1 = 0%; 2 = 1–20%; 3 = 21–40%; 4 = 41–60%; 5 = 61–80%; 6 = 81–100%)
Mean number of crustose lichen species on water oaksMean number of crustose lichen species per tree
Mean number of foliose lichen species on water oaksMean number of foliose lichen species per tree
Crustose :  foliose ratio (on water oaks)Ratio of crustose to foliose lichen species per tree
Mean lichen abundance rank for water oaksMean lichen abundance rank for water oaks (percentage of cover: 1 = 0%; 2 = 1–20%; 3 = 21–40%; 4 = 41–60%; 5 = 61–80%; 6 = 81–100%)
Mean dominance of crustose over foliose (on water oaks)Mean dominance of crustose over foliose lichens (1 = crustose; 2 = foliose)
Population densityPopulation density (number of people/km2) for census tract containing site
Housing densityHousing density (number of houses/km2) for census tract containing site
Road densityRoad density (length of road in km/km2) for census tract containing site
Plot distance to any road (m)Measure of distance (in m) from each plot to the nearest road
Plot distance to major road (m)Measure of distance (in m) from each plot to the nearest paved road
% forestPercentage of forest cover for census tract containing site
% pasturePercentage of pasture cover for census tract containing site
% grasses (pasture + lawn)Percentage of grass cover (pasture and urban lawn) for census tract containing site
% urbanPercentage of urban/built-up land cover for census tract containing site
% nonvegetated land (urban + bare ground)Percentage ofurban/built-up land and bare ground (dirt) cover for census tract containing site
Forest patch densityNumber of forest patches per 100 ha within census tract containing site
Forest edge densityTotal length of forest edge (in m/ha) within census tract containing site
Forest perimeter-area fractal shapeForest patch shape complexity, ranging from simple (1) to complex (2) perimeter shapes
Shannon's landscape diversity indexProportion of landscape occupied by a patch type of a particular class, where 0=only one patch type,increasing as the number of different patch types increases
Shannon's landscape evenness indexEvenness of areal distribution among patch types, where 0=uneven areal distribution or dominance of only one patch type, increasing toward 1, where there is perfect evenness
Maximum seasonal ozone concentrationMaximum ozone concentration measured at site from May–Sept, 2006
Maximum seasonal NOx concentrationMaximum NOx concentration measured at site from May–Sept, 2006

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