International Scholarly Research Notices / 2011 / Article / Tab 3

Research Article

Determination of Alterations in Forest Condition Using Various Measures of Land Use Change along an Urban-Rural Gradient in the West Georgia Piedmont, USA

Table 3

Standard ANOVA values and means (±SE) for forest condition variables collected in “West Georgia” 1.

Standard ANOVA Tukey-Kramer HSD Comparisons
VariableMean squareProb > F Urban
( 𝑛 = 4 )
Developing
( 𝑛 = 4 )
Rural
( 𝑛 = 4 )

% Insect incidence for all trees4.700.48 2 . 5 0 ± 1 . 8 1 0 . 3 3 ± 0 . 3 3 1 . 3 3 ± 1 . 0 3
% Disease incidence for all trees14.510.59 4 . 2 5 ± 1 . 7 5 4 . 0 0 ± 4 . 0 0 0 . 8 3 ± 0 . 6 3
% Mechanical damage incidence for all trees279.900.09 3 0 . 2 5 ± 2 . 9 6 (a) 1 9 . 2 5 ± 3 . 1 8 (a, b) 1 3 . 8 3 ± 6 . 9 6 (b)
% Insect + disease + mech damage for all trees452.340.04 3 7 . 0 0 ± 3 . 8 2 (a) 2 3 . 5 8 ± 3 . 9 1 (a, b) 1 6 . 0 0 ± 6 . 5 3 (b)
% Trees with lichens1320.080.22 5 1 . 8 3 ± 2 1 . 4 6 (a) 7 4 . 0 8 ± 1 1 . 6 7 (a, b) 8 7 . 8 3 ± 5 . 7 8 (b)
Mean number of lichen species per tree6.230.14 0 . 7 5 ± 0 . 4 3 (a) 2 . 5 0 ± 1 . 0 4 (b) 3 . 1 7 ± 0 . 9 0 (b)
Mean lichen abundance rank for all hardwoods1.440.13 0 . 4 2 ± 0 . 1 6 (a) 1 . 2 5 ± 0 . 4 8 (b) 1 . 5 8 ± 0 . 4 2 (b)
Mean number of crustose species on water oaks0.900.68 4 . 6 1 ± 0 . 8 5 4 . 1 5 ± 0 . 6 6 5 . 0 9 ± 0 . 7 0
Mean number of foliose species on water oaks1.190.24 1 . 2 9 ± 0 . 5 3 (a, b) 0 . 6 8 ± 0 . 3 0 (a) 1 . 7 7 ± 0 . 3 9 (b)
Crustose :  foliose ratio (on water oaks)131.150.10 9 . 7 2 ± 3 . 6 5 1 5 . 9 5 ± 4 . 0 3 4 . 5 2 ± 1 . 8 3
Mean lichen abundance rank for water oaks91.970.57 2 6 . 1 5 ± 8 . 1 5 1 7 . 5 0 ± 4 . 0 0 2 5 . 4 2 ± 5 . 6 6
Mean dominance of crustose over foliose0.160.21 1 . 2 3 ± 0 . 1 8 1 . 0 4 ± 0 . 0 4 1 . 4 4 ± 0 . 1 7

1SE = standard error of the mean; 𝑛 = number of study sites sampled; Mean values in a row with different letters are significantly different ( 𝑃 < . 0 5 ) based on Tukey-adjusted least squares means.

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