International Scholarly Research Notices / 2011 / Article / Tab 4

Research Article

Determination of Alterations in Forest Condition Using Various Measures of Land Use Change along an Urban-Rural Gradient in the West Georgia Piedmont, USA

Table 4

Standard ANOVA values and means (±SE) for urbanization variables collected in “West Georgia” 1.

Standard ANOVA Tukey-Kramer HSD Comparisons
VariableMean squareProb > F Urban
( 𝑛 = 4 )
Developing
( 𝑛 = 4 )
Rural
( 𝑛 = 4 )

Population density729062<0.01 7 7 1 . 1 1 ± 1 9 1 . 7 3 (a) 5 1 . 4 0 ± 2 3 . 9 7 (b) 1 3 . 3 7 ± 1 . 7 9 (b)
Housing density119322<0.01 3 1 1 . 3 2 ± 7 9 . 9 7 (a) 1 8 . 7 6 ± 8 . 1 2 (b) 5 . 9 9 ± 1 . 1 0 (b)
Road density44.86<0.01 7 . 4 0 ± 0 . 9 9 (a) 1 . 7 7 ± 0 . 1 5 (b) 1 . 4 5 ± 0 . 1 0 (b)
Plot distance to any road (m)593710.20 1 1 1 . 5 8 ± 9 . 2 9 3 4 1 . 7 5 ± 9 7 . 6 8 2 9 5 . 9 2 ± 1 1 6 . 0 7
Plot distance to major road (m)257670.79 4 8 6 . 6 7 ± 1 2 8 . 1 8 3 7 8 . 3 3 ± 8 3 . 3 3 5 3 5 . 0 8 ± 2 3 6 . 1 9
% Forest1781<0.01 4 2 . 2 8 ± 3 . 2 0 (a) 7 9 . 1 3 ± 0 . 9 1 (b) 7 8 . 5 1 ± 2 . 9 2 (b)
% Pasture29.600.02 0 . 5 1 ± 0 . 1 7 (a) 3 . 6 3 ± 1 . 0 3 (a, b) 5 . 9 3 ± 1 . 6 1 (b)
% Grasses (pasture + lawn)0.340.93 5 . 8 2 ± 0 . 8 7 5 . 5 4 ± 0 . 5 5 6 . 1 2 ± 1 . 4 8
% Urban3054<0.01 5 0 . 0 1 ± 3 . 2 2 (a) 4 . 2 6 ± 2 . 2 4 (b) 0 . 2 9 ± 0 . 2 6 (b)
% Nonvegetated (urban + bare ground)1762<0.01 5 0 . 0 1 ± 3 . 2 2 (a) 1 3 . 7 2 ± 0 . 4 9 (b) 1 3 . 5 9 ± 2 . 0 2 (b)
Forest patch density223<0.01 1 4 . 5 4 ± 2 . 6 6 (a) 1 . 8 5 ± 0 . 1 3 (b) 1 . 4 0 ± 0 . 3 3 (b)
Forest edge density7147<0.01 1 3 7 . 6 6 ± 8 . 7 2 (a) 7 0 . 1 0 ± 1 . 9 0 (b) 5 9 . 8 7 ± 3 . 3 4 (b)
Forest perimeter-area fractal shape0.0040.05 1 . 4 9 ± 0 . 0 2 (a) 1 . 4 5 ± 0 . 0 0 (b) 1 . 4 4 ± 0 . 0 1 (b)
Shannon's landscape diversity index0.07<0.01 0 . 9 4 ± 0 . 0 1 (a) 0 . 7 4 ± 0 . 0 2 (b) 0 . 7 0 ± 0 . 0 5 (b)
Shannon's landscape evenness index0.06<0.01 0 . 6 8 ± 0 . 0 1 (a) 0 . 4 6 ± 0 . 0 1 (b) 0 . 4 7 ± 0 . 0 5 (b)
Maximum seasonal ozone concentration9.53<0.01 1 5 . 2 6 ± 1 . 9 5 1 1 . 2 4 ± 1 . 1 1 1 4 . 7 3 ± 0 . 1 2
Maximum seasonal NO x concentration7.440.02 6 . 0 3 ± 0 . 2 9 (a) 2 . 8 8 ± 0 . 4 7 (b) 2 . 5 2 ± 0 . 5 3 (b)

1SE: standard error of the mean. 𝑛 : number of study sites sampled. Mean values in a row with different letters are significantly different ( 𝑃 < . 0 5 ) based on Tukey-adjusted least squares means.

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