Table of Contents
ISRN Endocrinology
Volume 2011, Article ID 480656, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2011/480656
Research Article

Neurofunctional Evaluation of Young Male Offspring of Rat Dams with Diabetes Induced by Streptozotocin

1Departamento de Obstetrícia, Rua Napoleão de Barros 875, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, 04024-002 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
2Laboratório de Neuropatologia e Neuroproteção, Rua Pedro de Toledo 781, 7 andar, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, 04039-032 São Paulo, SP, Brazil

Received 25 June 2011; Accepted 2 August 2011

Academic Editors: W. B. Chan and T.-H. Tung

Copyright © 2011 Carla Delascio Lopes et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. Dornhorst and G. Frost, “The principles of dietary management of gestational diabetes: reflection on current evidence,” Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 145–156, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. S. G. Gabbe, “Management of diabetes mellitus in pregnancy,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 153, no. 8, pp. 824–828, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. American Diabetes Association, “Gestational diabetes mellitus,” Diabetes Care, vol. 27, supplement 1, pp. S88–S90, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. B. E. Metzger and O. Committe, “Summary and recommendations of the third international workshop-conference on gestational diabetes mellitus,” Diabetes, vol. 40, supplement 2, pp. 197–201, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. K. S. Amankwah, R. L. Prentice, and F. J. Fleury, “The incidence of gestacional diabetes,” Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 497–498, 1977. View at Google Scholar
  6. D. Dabelea, J. K. S. Bergeon, C. L. Hartsfield, K. J. Bischoff, R. F. Hamman, and R. S. McDuffie, “Increasing prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) over time and by birth cohort,” Diabetes Care, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 579–584, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. Cannon, P. B. Jones, and R. M. Murray, “Obstetric complications and schizophrenia: historical and meta-analytic review,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 159, no. 7, pp. 1080–1092, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. P. R. Huttenlocher, “Dendritic and synaptic development in human cerebral cortex: time course and critical periods,” Developmental Neuropsychology, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 347–349, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. Isohanni, P. B. Jones, K. Moilanen et al., “Early developmental milestones in adult schizophrenia and other psychoses. A 31-year follow-up of the Northern Finland 1966 birth cohort,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 52, no. 1-2, pp. 1–19, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. Cannon, A. Caspi, T. E. Moffitt et al., “Evidence for early-childhood, pan-developmental impairment specific to schizophreniform disorder: results from a longitudinal birth cohort,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 449–456, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. P. Jones, B. Rodgers, R. Murray, and M. Marmot, “Child developmental risk factors for adult schizophrenia in the British 1946 birth cohort,” The Lancet, vol. 344, no. 8934, pp. 1398–1402, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. Kim-Cohen, A. Caspi, T. E. Moffitt, H. Harrington, B. J. Milne, and R. Poulton, “Prior juvenile diagnoses in adults with mental disorder: developmental follow-back of a prospective-longitudinal cohort,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 60, no. 7, pp. 709–717, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  13. A. Plagemann, T. Harder, R. Lindner et al., “Alterations of hypothalamic catecholamines in the newborn offspring of gestational diabetic mother rats,” Developmental Brain Research, vol. 109, no. 2, pp. 201–209, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. I. M. P. Calderon, Modelo Experimental em Ratas para Estudo do Binômio Diabete e Gravidez, M.S. thesis, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, Brazil, 1988.
  15. N. Wongsurawat and H. J. Armbrecht, “Calcitonin stimulates 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D production in diabetic rat kidney,” Metabolism, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 22–25, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. H. Trachtman, S. Futterweit, J. Maesaka et al., “Taurine ameliorates chronic streptozocin-induced diabetic nephropathy in rats,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 269, no. 3, pp. F429–F438, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. Anderson, F. F. Jung, and J. R. Ingelfinger, “Renal renin-angiotensin system in diabetes: functional, immunohistochemical, and molecular biological correlations,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 265, no. 4, pp. F477–F486, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. L. Jovanovic, M. Druzin, and C. M. Peterson, “Effect of euglycemia on the outcome of pregnancy in insulin-dependent diabetic women as compared with normal control subjects,” American Journal of Medicine, vol. 71, no. 6, pp. 921–927, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. R. Morris, “Developments of a water-maze procedure for studying spatial learning in the rat,” Journal of Neuroscience Methods, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 47–60, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. T. A. Rizzo, S. L. Dooley, B. E. Metzger, N. H. Cho, E. S. Ogata, and B. L. Silverman, “Prenatal and perinatal influences on long-term psychomotor development in offspring of diabetic mothers,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 173, no. 6, pp. 1753–1758, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. B. Petersen, S. A. Pedersen, G. Greisen, J. F. Pedersen, and L. M. Pedersen, “Early growth delay in diabetic pregnancy: relation to psychomotor development at age 4,” British Medical Journal, vol. 296, no. 6622, pp. 598–600, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. Ornoy, N. Ratzon, C. Greenbaum, A. Wolf, and M. Dulitzky, “School-age children born to diabetic mothers and to mothers with gestational diabetes exhibit a high rate of inattention and fine and gross motor impairment,” Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 14, supplement 1, pp. 681–690, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. A. Churchill, H. W. Berendes, and J. Nemore, “Neuropsychological deficits in children of diabetic mothers. A report from the collaborative study of cerebral palsy,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 105, no. 2, pp. 257–268, 1969. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. A. Stehbens, G. L. Baker, and M. Kitchell, “Outcome at ages 1, 3, and 5 years of children born to diabetic women,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 127, no. 4, pp. 408–413, 1977. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. Cummins and M. Norrish, “Follow-up of children of diabetic mothers,” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 259–264, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. B. Persson, J. Gentz, and E. Moller, “Follow-up of children of insulin dependent (type I) and gestational diabetic mothers. Growth pattern, glucose tolerance, insulin response, and HLA types,” Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica, vol. 73, no. 6, pp. 778–784, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. C. Woolley and B. McEwen, “Estradiol mediates fluctuation in hippocampal synapse density during the estrous cycle in the adult rat,” The Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 2549–2554, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  28. G. Olmos, F. Naftolin, J. Perez, P. A. Tranque, and L. M. Garcia-Segura, “Synaptic remodeling in the rat arcuate nucleus during the estrous cycle,” Neuroscience, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 663–667, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. W. R. Crowley, T. L. O'Donohue, and D. M. Jacobowitz, “Changes in catecholamine content in discrete brain nuclei during the estrous cycle of the rat,” Brain Research, vol. 147, no. 2, pp. 315–326, 1978. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. M. Daniel, A. J. Fader, A. L. Spencer, and G. P. Dohanich, “Estrogen enhances performance of female rats during acquisition of a radial arm maze,” Hormones and Behavior, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 217–225, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  31. R. Brandeis, Y. Brandys, and S. Yehuda, “The use of the Morris water maze in the study of memory and learning,” International Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 48, no. 1-2, pp. 29–69, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. R. K. McNamara and R. W. Skelton, “The neuropharmacological and neurochemical basis of place learning in the Morris water maze,” Brain Research Reviews, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 33–49, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. R. W. Oppenheim, “Cell death of motoneurons in the chick embryo spinal cord: VIII. motoneurons prevented from dying in the embryo persist after hatching,” Developmental Biology, vol. 101, no. 1, pp. 35–39, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. M. J. Burek and R. W. Oppenheim, “Cellular interactions that regulate programmed cell death in the developing vertebrate,” in Cell Death and Diseases of the Nervous System, V. E. Koliatsos and R. R. Ratan, Eds., pp. 145–180, Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, USA.