Table of Contents
ISRN Pediatrics
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 709653, 4 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2011/709653
Research Article

Prevalence of ADHD Symptoms amonge Male Preschoolers Based on Different Informants in Ahvas City of Iran

Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Golestan Avenue, 418 Gelayol Alley, Ostadan Street, Ahvaz 61357 33118, Iran

Received 19 July 2011; Accepted 28 August 2011

Academic Editor: C. D. Berkowitz

Copyright © 2011 Ashraf Tashakori and Razieh Afkandeh. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. L. Spetie and E. L. Arnold, “Attention-deficit /hyperactivity disorder,” in Lewis's Child and Adolescent Psychiatry a Comprehensive Textbook, A. Martin and F. R. Volkmar, Eds., pp. 323–343, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 4th edition, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  2. C. A. Riccio, S. Homack, K. P. Jarratt, and M. E. Wolfe, “Differences in academic and executive function domains among children with ADHD Predominantly Inattentive and Combined Types,” Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 657–667, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. V. Faraone, J. Sergeant, C. Gillbery et al., “The worldwide Prevalence of ADHD: is it an American condition?” World Psychiatry, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 104–113, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  4. M. Skounti, A. Philalithis, and E. Galanakis, “Variations in prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder worldwide,” European Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 166, no. 2, pp. 117–123, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. H. Vasiri asfarjani, A. Tashakori, and S. Farhadi babadi, “Prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Ahvaz city student and relation with some risk factors,” in Proceedings of the 21th International Congress of Pediatrics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, 2009.
  6. L. A. Rohde, C. Szobot, G. Polanczyk, M. Schmitz, S. Martins, and S. Tramontina, “Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a diverse culture: do research and clinical findings support the notion of a cultural construct for the disorder?” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 1436–1441, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. L. L. Greenhill and L. I. Hechtman, “Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder,” in Comprehensive Text Book of Psychiatry, B. J. Sadock, V. A. Sadock, and P. Ruiz, Eds., pp. 3563–3564, Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 9th edition, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  8. S. Perren, A. Von Wyl, S. Stadelmann, D. Bürgin, and K. Von Klitzing, “Associations between behavioral/emotional difficulties in kindergarten children and the quality of their peer relationships,” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 45, no. 7, pp. 867–876, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. R. A. Barkley, M. Fischer, L. Smallish, and K. Fletcher, “Young adult outcome of hyperactive children: adaptive functioning in major life activities,” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 192–202, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. C. K. Whalen, B. Henker, S. S. Ishikawa et al., “An electronic diary study of contextual triggers and ADHD: get ready, get set, get mad,” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 166–174, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. E. Taylor and E. Songa-Barke, “Disorder of attention and activity,” in Rutter's Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, M. Rutter, D. Bishop, D. Pine, S. Scott, J. Stevenson, and E. Taylor, Eds., p. 532, Welly-Blackwell, Mass, USA, 5th edition, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  12. K. M. Antshel and R. Nastasi, “Metamemory development in preschool children with ADHD,” Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 403–411, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. Hakim shooshtary, N. Chimeh, M. Najafi et al., “The prevalence of attention deficit Hyperactivity disorder in Iran: a systematic review,” Iranian Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 5, pp. 88–92, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  14. D. P. Smidts and J. Oosterlaan, “How common are symptoms of ADHD in typically developing preschoolers? A study on prevalence rates and prenatal/demographic risk factors,” Cortex, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 710–717, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. G. Ardalan, D. D. Farhoud, and D. Shahmohammadi, “Hyperactivity, attention and concentration deficit in preschool children,” Iranian Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 53–59, 2003, (Persian). View at Google Scholar
  16. B. S. Suvarna and A. Kamath, “Prevalence of attention deficit disorder among preschool age children,” Nepal Medical College Journal, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 1–4, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. D. Pineda, A. Ardila, M. Rosselli et al., “Prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in 4- to 17-year-old children in the general population,” Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 455–462, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. P. Hebrani, E. Abdolahian, F. Behdani, I. Vosoogh, and A. Javanbakht, “The prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in preschool-age children in Mashhad, North-East of Iran,” Archives of Iranian Medicine, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 147–151, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. D. F. Hay, K. Hudson, and W. Liang, “Links between preschool children's prosocial skills and aggressive conduct problems: the contribution of ADHD symptoms,” Early Childhood Research Quarterly, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 493–501, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. A. Rogers, J. Wiener, I. Marton, and R. Tannock, “Parental involvement in children's learning: comparing parents of children with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD),” Journal of School Psychology, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 167–185, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. B. J. Sadock and V. A. Sadock, Kaplan and Shaddocks' Synopsis of Psychiatry, Behavioral Clinical Psychiatry, Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 10th edition, 2007.
  22. M. Weiss and G. Weiss, “Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,” in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry a Comprehensive Textbook, M. Lewis, Ed., pp. 645–651, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 3rd edition, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  23. K. Myers and B. Collect, “Rating scales,” in Textbook of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, J. M. Wiener and M. K. Dulcan, Eds., p. 155, American Psychiatric Publishing, Washington, DC, USA, 3rd edition, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  24. E. M. S. Sherman, B. L. Brooks, S. Akdag, M. B. Connolly, and S. Wiebe, “Parents report more ADHD symptoms than do teachers in children with epilepsy,” Epilepsy and Behavior, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 428–435, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. B. Waslic and L. L. Greenhill, “Attention-deficit /hyperactivity disorder,” in Textbook of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, J. M. Wiener and M. K. Dulcan, Eds., pp. 485–490, American Psychiatric Publishin, Washington, DC, USA, 3rd edition, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  26. J. L. Ohan, T. A. W. Visser, M. C. Strain, and L. Allen, “Teachers' and education students' perceptions of and reactions to children with and without the diagnostic label “ADHD”,” Journal of School Psychology, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 81–105, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. T. E. Elder, “The importance of relative standards in ADHD diagnoses: evidence based on exact birth dates,” Journal of Health Economics, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 641–656, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus