Table of Contents
ISRN Neurology
Volume 2011, Article ID 845453, 7 pages
Clinical Study

A Comprehensive Study of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Parkinson's Disease

Department of Neurology, Hematology, Metabolism, Endocrinology, and Diabetology, Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata University, 2-2-2 Iida-nishi, Yamagata 990-9585, Japan

Received 28 April 2011; Accepted 19 June 2011

Academic Editor: A. Martinuzzi

Copyright © 2011 Hideki Kimura et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The clinical benefits of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for Parkinson's disease (PD) remain controversial. We performed a comprehensive study to examine whether rTMS is a safe and effective treatment for PD. Twelve PD patients received rTMS once a week. The crossover study design consisted of 4-week sham rTMS followed by 4-week real rTMS. The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), Modified Hoehn and Yahr Stage, Schwab and England ADL Scale, Actigraph, Mini-Mental State Examination, Hamilton Depression Scale, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-revised, and cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examinations were used to evaluate the rTMS effects. Under both drug-on and drug-off conditions, the real rTMS improved the UPDRS scores significantly, while the sham rTMS did not. There were no significant changes in the results of the neuropsychological tests, CBF and CSF. rTMS seems to be a safe and effective therapeutic option for PD patients, especially in a wearing-off state.