Table of Contents
ISRN Obstetrics and Gynecology
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 847684, 6 pages
Review Article

Smoking and Cervical Cancer

Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade da Beira Interior, Avenida Infante D. Henrique, 6200-506 Covilhã, Portugal

Received 24 April 2011; Accepted 25 May 2011

Academic Editors: C. J. Petry and L. C. Zeferino

Copyright © 2011 José Alberto Fonseca-Moutinho. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Cervical cancer (CC) is the third most common cancer in women worldwide; however, CC is a preventable disease, and much effort should be done to prevent it. Persistence of high-risk HPV infection is the strongest epidemiologic risk factor for CC, however it is not sufficient for development of the disease it cofactors should be present. In 2004; IARC listed cervical cancer among those causally related to smoking. Smoking interferes with incidence and prevalence of HPV infection and is associated with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive CC. Multiple factors seem to intervene on cervical carcinogenesis related with tobacco, especially by direct local carcinogenic effect and local immunosuppression. Smoking addition is also closely related with other confounding factors, like unfavorable psychosocial events, systemic immunity, contraception, and nutrition, which got difficult epidemiologic evaluation of smoking role on cervical carcinogenesis. Smoking habits should be taken in account in clinical practice and in research concerning CC.