Table of Contents
ISRN Neurology
Volume 2011, Article ID 867503, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2011/867503
Review Article

Focal Epilepsy Associated with Glioneuronal Tumors

Department of Paediatrics, University of Chieti, 66100 Chieti, Italy

Received 28 March 2011; Accepted 19 May 2011

Academic Editors: D. E. Bulman, D. T. Dexter, and R. Yamanaka

Copyright © 2011 Giulia Loiacono et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Glioneuronal tumors are an increasingly recognized cause of partial seizures that occur primarily in children and young adults. Focal epilepsy associated with glioneuronal tumors is often resistant to pharmacological treatment. The cellular mechanisms underlying the epileptogenicity of glioneuronal tumors remain largely unknown. The involved mechanisms are certain to be multifactorial and depend on specific tumor histology, integrity of the blood-brain barrier, characteristics of the peritumoral environment, circuit abnormalities, or cellular and molecular defects. Glioneuronal tumors presenting with epilepsy were observed to have relatively benign biological behavior. The completeness of the tumor resection is of paramount importance in avoiding tumor progression and malignant transformation, which are rare in cases of epileptogenic glioneuronal tumors. An evolving understanding of the various mechanisms of tumor-related epileptogenicity may also lead to a more defined surgical objective and effective therapeutic strategies, including antiepileptogenic treatments, to prevent epilepsy in at-risk patients.