Table 2: Secondary causes of bone loss in men [2, 6].

CommonLess Common

Cushing’s syndrome or corticosteroid therapy (e.g., >5 mg/day for >3 months)Low BMI (<20 Kg/m2) and eating disorders associated with decreased BMI
Lack of exercise or excessive exercise
Excessive alcohol useAntiepileptic drugs (phenytoin, phenobarbitone, primidone, carbamazepine)
Primary or secondary hypogonadism
Low calcium intake and vitamin D deficiencyThyrotoxicosis or thyroxine overreplacement
SmokingPrimary hyperparathyroidism
Family history of minimal trauma fractureChronic liver or kidney disease
Malabsorption, including celiac disease
Chronic lung diseaseHypercalciuria
Rheumatoid arthritis or ankylosing spondylitis
Type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus
Multiple myeloma or other monoclonal gammopathies
HIV or its treatment with protease inhibitors
Organ transplantation or immunosuppressive agents (cyclosporine and tacrolimus)
Osteogenesis imperfecta

BMI: body mass index (defined as the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters).