Table of Contents
ISRN Veterinary Science
Volume 2011, Article ID 901713, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2011/901713
Research Article

Ultrasonographic Imaging for Structural Characterization of Renal Affections and Diagnosis of Associated Chronic Renal Failure in 10 Dogs

Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology DGCN, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, CSK HP Agricultural University, Himachal Pradesh, Palampur 176062, India

Received 13 October 2011; Accepted 20 November 2011

Academic Editor: B. Hoffmann

Copyright © 2011 Vijay Kumar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The present study comprises of 10 dogs of either sex with primary indication of azotaemia. All the dogs were subjected to detailed clinical, haematobiochemical, urinalysis, and microbiological examination along with radiographical and ultrasonographical examination. Based on the ultrasonographic structural abnormalities, the different renal affections associated with CRF in majority of dogs were diagnosed. The different affections included “end-stage” kidneys ( 𝑛 = 4 ), hydronephrosis ( 𝑛 = 1 ), renomegaly ( 𝑛 = 1 ), nephritis ( 𝑛 = 1 ), nephrolithiasis ( 𝑛 = 1 ), nephrocalcinosis ( 𝑛 = 1 ), and renal cyst ( 𝑛 = 1 ). The significant ultrasonographic features in these affections included small kidneys with loss of corticomedullary demarcation (“end-stage” kidneys); increased cortical echogenicity (nephritis); dilation of the renal pelvis, separation of the central renal sinus with anechoic space, atrophy of renal medulla, (hydronephrosis); enlarged kidneys with increased overall echogenicity of renal cortex (renomegaly and associated nephritis); hyperechoic-mineralized structure with shadowing (nephrolithiasis); diffuse, small, multiple hyperechoic structures in the renal parenchyma with distal acoustic shadowing (nephrocalcinosis); small spherical intercortical anechoic structures fluid (renal cysts). In the present study, ultrasound proved to be a quick, convenient, and sensitive modality in detecting alterations in renal size and parenchymal architecture. All the dogs so diagnosed with CRF were rendered conservative medical treatment to control clinical signs of uraemia; maintain adequate fluid, electrolyte, and acid/base balance; provide adequate nutrition; minimize progression of renal failure.