Table of Contents
ISRN Cardiology
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 924343, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2011/924343
Research Article

Assessment of Association of Increased Heart Rates to Cardiovascular Events among Healthy Subjects in the United States: Analysis of a Primary Care Electronic Medical Records Database

1Department of Pharmacotherapy, University of Utah College of Pharmacy, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
2Department of Physical Therapy, University of Utah College of Health, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
3Center on Aging, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
4Division of Public Health, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT 84108, USA
5Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ 07936, USA
6Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC 27104, USA

Received 14 February 2011; Accepted 20 March 2011

Academic Editors: E. A. Bocchi and C. Vassalle

Copyright © 2011 Carl V. Asche et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. K. E. Andersson and B. Olshansky, “Treating patients with overactive bladder syndrome with antimuscarinics: heart rate considerations,” BJU International, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 1007–1014, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  2. X. Jouven, J. P. Empana, S. Escolano et al., “Relation of heart rate at rest and long-term (>20 years) death rate in initially healthy middle-aged men,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 103, no. 2, pp. 279–283, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  3. B. Olshansky, U. Ebinger, J. Brum, M. Egermark, A. Viegas, and L. Rekeda, “Differential pharmacological effects of antimuscarinic drugs on heart rate: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study with tolterodine and darifenacin in healthy participants ≥50 years,” Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 241–251, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  4. W. B. Kannel, C. Kannel, R. S. Paffenbarger Jr., and A. Cupples, “Heart rate and cardiovascular mortality: the Framingham study,” American Heart Journal, vol. 113, no. 6, pp. 1489–1494, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  5. V. De Groot, H. Beckerman, G. J. Lankhorst, and L. M. Bouter, “How to measure comorbidity: a critical review of available methods,” Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 221–229, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. Charlson, T. P. Szatrowski, J. Peterson, and J. Gold, “Validation of a combined comorbidity index,” Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 1245–1251, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. G. de Lissovoy and S. S. Lazarus, “The economic cost of migraine. Present state of knowledge,” Neurology, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. S56–62, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. E. Charlson, R. E. Charlson, J. C. Peterson, S. S. Marinopoulos, W. M. Briggs, and J. P. Hollenberg, “The Charlson comorbidity index is adapted to predict costs of chronic disease in primary care patients,” Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, vol. 61, no. 12, pp. 1234–1240, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  9. S. Chaudhry, L. Jin, and D. Meltzer, “Use of a self-report-generated Charlson comorbidity index for predicting mortality,” Medical Care, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 607–615, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. L. A. Petersen, K. Pietz, L. D. Woodard, and M. Byrne, “Comparison of the predictive validity of diagnosis-based risk adjusters for clinical outcomes,” Medical Care, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 61–67, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. Von Korff, E. H. Wagner, and K. Saunders, “A chronic disease score from automated pharmacy data,” Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 197–203, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. D. O. Clark, M. Von Korff, K. Saunders, W. M. Baluch, and G. E. Simon, “A chronic disease score with empirically derived weights,” Medical Care, vol. 33, no. 8, pp. 783–795, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  13. M. Von Korff, E. H. Wagner, and K. Saunders, “A chronic disease score from automated pharmacy data,” Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 197–203, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. C. McGregor, P. W. Kim, E. N. Perencevich et al., “Utility of the Chronic Disease Score and Charlson Comorbidity Index as comorbidity measures for use in epidemiologic studies of antibiotic-resistant organisms,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 161, no. 5, pp. 483–493, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  15. O. Baser, L. Palmer, and J. Stephenson, “The estimation power of alternative comorbidity indices,” Value in Health, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 946–955, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  16. K. G. Putnam, D. S. M. Buist, P. Fishman et al., “Chronic disease score as a predictor of hospitalization,” Epidemiology, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 340–346, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. R. E. Johnson, M. C. Hornbrook, and G. A. Nichols, “Replicating the chronic disease score (CDS) from automated pharmacy data,” Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, vol. 47, no. 10, pp. 1191–1199, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. K. E. Andersson, C. Sarawate, K. H. Kahler, E. L. Stanley, and A. S. Kulkarni, “Cardiovascular morbidity, heart rates and use of antimuscarinics in patients with overactive bladder,” BJU International, vol. 106, no. 2, pp. 268–274, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  19. H. J. Levine, “Rest heart rate and life expectancy,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 1104–1106, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. A. Benetos, F. Thomas, K. Bean, P. Albaladejo, L. Guize, and P. Palatini, “Resting heart rate in older people: a predictor of survival to age 85,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 284–285, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. R. F. Gillum, D. M. Makuc, and J. J. Feldman, “Pulse rate, coronary heart disease, and death: the NHANES I epidemiologic follow-up study,” American Heart Journal, vol. 121, no. 1 I, pp. 172–177, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. Diaz, M. G. Bourassa, M. C. Guertin, and J. C. Tardif, “Long-term prognostic value of resting heart rate in patients with suspected or proven coronary artery disease,” European Heart Journal, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 967–974, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  23. P. Palatini, A. Benetos, and S. Julius, “Impact of increased heart rate on clinical outcomes in hypertension: implications for antihypertensive drug therapy,” Drugs, vol. 66, no. 2, pp. 133–144, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. K. Fox, J. S. Borer, A. J. Camm et al., “Resting heart rate in cardiovascular disease,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 50, no. 9, pp. 823–830, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  25. P. Palatini, A. Benetos, and S. Julius, “Impact of increased heart rate on clinical outcomes in hypertension: implications for antihypertensive drug therapy,” Drugs, vol. 66, no. 2, pp. 133–144, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. T. L. Lash, V. Mor, D. Wieland, L. Ferrucci, W. Satariano, and R. A. Silliman, “Methodology, design, and analytic techniques to address measurement of comorbid disease,” Journals of Gerontology. Series A, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 281–285, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. L. I. Iezzoni, “Assessing quality using administrative data,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 127, no. 8, pp. 666–673, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus