Table of Contents
ISRN Oncology
Volume 2011, Article ID 943704, 4 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2011/943704
Clinical Study

Screening for Prostate Cancer by Digital Rectal Examination and PSA Determination in Senegal

Urology Service, Grand Yoff General Hospital, BP 3270 Dakar, Senegal

Received 28 April 2011; Accepted 5 June 2011

Academic Editor: A. Celetti

Copyright © 2011 Lamine Niang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Objectives. The goal of our study was to investigate the prevalence of prostate cancer in an unselected population of Senegalese men. Patients and Methods. We conducted the study over two years (2008 and 2009) on an unselected population of 572 Senegalese men, aged 35 and older. The following parameters have been investigated: the subject's age, the presence or absence of urination disorders, the family's history of prostate cancer or prostate surgery, the aspects of the prostate on digital rectal examination (DRE), the total PSA level, and the outcomes of the prostate biopsies. Data entry was performed with Epi Info 6 software and was analyzed and recorded using Excel software. We performed mean and frequency calculations. Results. The mean age of our patients was 65.5 years, with extremes of 38 and 93 years. Age groups from 50 to 59 and from 60 to 69 were the most represented. DRE was normal in the age group from 35 to 39, and only one patient in the age group from 40 to 49 had a prostate nodule. PSA level was greater than or equal to 4 ng/mL in 66 cases. A total of 5.4% patients had a PSA level greater than or equal to 10 ng/mL. Only two patients in the age group from 40 to 49 had a PSA level greater than 4 ng/mL. Of the 72 biopsies we performed, prostatic adenocarcinoma was found in 30.6% of the cases. It is the only type of prostate cancer we found in our series. The cases of prostate cancer were mostly observed in the age groups from 60 to 69 and from 70 to 79. No cases were detected for ages younger than 50. DRE gave indications of possible adenocarcinoma in 27.30% cases. Its sensitivity was 27%, while its positive predictive value was estimated at 35%. Of all positive biopsies, 4.5% had a PSA level between 0 and 3.9 ng/mL. In this case, the sensitivity of PSA was 95.5%, and the positive predictive value was 31.8%. High-grade intraepithelial neoplasiae were observed in 21 cases. Conclusion. Prostate cancer is frequent in Senegal, and screening remains the best way for early diagnosis.