Table of Contents
ISRN Gastroenterology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 123826, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/123826
Review Article

The Relationship between Renal Dysfunction and Abnormalities of the Immune System in Patients with Decompensated Cirrhosis

Division of Gastroenterology, Tohoku University Hospital, 1-1 Seiryo, Aobaku, Sendai 980-8574, Japan

Received 18 November 2012; Accepted 6 December 2012

Academic Editors: C.-T. Shun and C. Sperti

Copyright © 2012 Eiji Kakazu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. P. S. Kamath, R. H. Wiesner, M. Malinchoc et al., “A model to predict survival in patients with end-stage liver disease,” Hepatology, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 464–470, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. R. Wiesner, E. Edwards, R. Freeman et al., “Model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) and allocation of donor livers,” Gastroenterology, vol. 124, no. 1, pp. 91–96, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. V. Arroyo, P. Ginès, A. L. Gerbes et al., “Definition and diagnostic criteria of refractory ascites and hepatorenal syndrome in cirrhosis,” Hepatology, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 164–176, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. P. Ginès and V. Arroyo, “Hepatorenal syndrome,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 1833–1839, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. L. Dagher and K. Moore, “The hepatorenal syndrome,” Gut, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 729–737, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. P. Ginès and R. W. Schrier, “Renal failure in cirrhosis,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 361, no. 13, pp. 1279–1290, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. C. Alessandria, O. Ozdogan, M. Guevara et al., “MELD score and clinical type predict prognosis in hepatorenal syndrome: relevance to liver transplantation,” Hepatology, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 1282–1289, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. S. Matsuo, E. Imai, M. Horio et al., “Revised equations for estimated GFR from serum creatinine in Japan,” American Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 53, no. 6, pp. 982–992, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. F. Wong, K. Sniderman, and L. Blendis, “The renal sympathetic and renin-angiotensin response to lower body negative pressure in well-compensated cirrhosis,” Gastroenterology, vol. 115, no. 2, pp. 397–490, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. V. Arroyo and W. Jiménez, “Complications of cirrhosis. II. Renal and circulatory dysfunction. Lights and shadows in an important clinical problem,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 157–170, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. H. Wernze, H. J. Spech, and G. Mueller, “Studies on the activity of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) in patients with cirrhosis of the liver,” Klinische Wochenschrift, vol. 56, no. 8, pp. 389–397, 1978. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. D. Bichet, V. Szatalowicz, and C. Chaimovitz, “Role of vasopressin in abnormal water excretion in cirrhotic patients,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 96, no. 4, pp. 413–417, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. Epstein, R. E. Weitzman, S. Preston, and A. G. DeNunzio, “Relationship between plasma arginine vasopressin and renal water handling in decompensated cirrhosis,” Mineral and Electrolyte Metabolism, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 155–165, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. Morel, S. J. Lolait, and M. J. Brownstein, “Molecular cloning and expression of rat V1a and V2 arginine vasopressin receptors,” Regulatory Peptides, vol. 45, no. 1-2, pp. 53–59, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. R. D. Gordon, O. Küchel, G. W. Liddle, and D. P. Island, “Role of the sympathetic nervous system in regulating renin and aldosterone production in man,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 599–605, 1967. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. H. Henriksen and H. Ring-Larsen, “Hepatorenal disorders: role of the sympathetic nervous system,” Seminars in Liver Disease, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 35–43, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. K. M. Nicholls, M. D. Shapiro, and V. J. Van Putten, “Elevated plasma norepinephrine concentrations in decompensated cirrhosis: association with increased secretion rates, normal clearance rates, and suppressibility by central blood volume expansion,” Circulation Research, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 457–461, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. H. Ring-Larsen, B. Hesse, J. H. Henriksen, and N. J. Christensen, “Sympathetic nervous activity and renal and systemic hemodynamics in cirrhosis: plasma norepinephrine concentration, hepatic extraction, and renal relase,” Hepatology, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 304–310, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. F. C. Rector Jr., F. P. Brunner, and D. W. Seldin, “Mechanism of glomerulotubular balance. I. Effect of aortic constriction and elevated ureteropelvic pressure on glomerular filtration rate, fractional reabsorption, transit time, and tubular size in the proximal tubule of the rat,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 590–602, 1966. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. Schnermann, F. S. Wright, J. M. Davis, W. V. Stackelberg, and G. Grill, “Regulation of superficial nephron filtration rate by tubulo-glomerular feedback,” Pflügers Archiv European Journal of Physiology, vol. 318, no. 2, pp. 147–175, 1970. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. J. Davis and M. A. Hill, “Signaling mechanisms underlying the vascular myogenic response,” Physiological Reviews, vol. 79, no. 2, pp. 387–423, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. P. Sort, M. Navasa, V. Arroyo et al., “Effect of intravenous albumin on renal impairment and mortality in patients with cirrhosis and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 341, no. 6, pp. 403–409, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. R. Moreau, F. Durand, T. Poynard et al., “Terlipressin in patients with cirrhosis and type 1 hepatorenal syndrome: a retrospective multicenter study,” Gastroenterology, vol. 122, no. 4, pp. 923–930, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. F. Salerno, A. Gerbes, P. Ginès, F. Wong, and V. Arroyo, “Diagnosis, prevention and treatment of hepatorenal syndrome in cirrhosis,” Gut, vol. 56, no. 9, pp. 1310–1318, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. Martín-Llahí, M. Pépin, M. Guevara et al., “Terlipressin and albumin vs albumin in patients with cirrhosis and hepatorenal syndrome: a randomized study,” Gastroenterology, vol. 134, no. 5, pp. 1352–1359, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. A. J. Sanyal, T. Boyer, G. Garcia-Tsao et al., “A randomized, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of terlipressin for type 1 hepatorenal syndrome,” Gastroenterology, vol. 134, no. 5, pp. 1360–1368, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. P. Angeli, R. Volpin, G. Gerunda et al., “Reversal of type 1 hepatorenal syndrome with the administration of midodrine and octreotide,” Hepatology, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 1690–1697, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. C. Duvoux, D. Zanditenas, C. Hézode et al., “Effects of noradrenalin and albumin in patients with type 1 hepatorenal syndrome: a pilot study,” Hepatology, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 374–380, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. E. Esrailian, E. R. Pantangco, N. L. Kyulo, K. Q. Hu, and B. A. Runyon, “Octreotide/midodrine therapy significantly improves renal function and 30-day survival in patients with type 1 hepatorenal syndrome,” Digestive Diseases and Sciences, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 742–748, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. R. D. Berg and A. W. Garlington, “Translocation of certain indigenous bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract to the mesenteric lymph nodes and other organs in a gnotobiotic mouse model,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 403–411, 1979. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. C. O. 'Boyle, J. MacFie, C. Mitchell, D. Johnstone, P. Sagar, and P. Sedman, “Microbiology of bacterial translocation in humans,” Gut, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 29–35, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  32. P. N. Bories, B. Campillo, L. Azaou, and E. Scherman, “Long-lasting NO overproduction in cirrhotic patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis,” Hepatology, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 1328–1333, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. B. Byl, I. Roucloux, A. Crusiaux, E. Dupont, and J. Deviere, “Tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 6 plasma levels in infected cirrhotic patients,” Gastroenterology, vol. 104, no. 5, pp. 1492–1497, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. H. Tilg, A. Wilmer, W. Vogel et al., “Serum levels of cytokines in chronic liver diseases,” Gastroenterology, vol. 103, no. 1, pp. 264–274, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. A. Galbois, D. Thabut, K. A. Tazi et al., “Ex vivo effects of high-density lipoprotein exposure on the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in patients with severe cirrhosis,” Hepatology, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 175–184, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. C. Guarner, J. M. González-Navajas, E. Sánchez et al., “The detection of bacterial DNA in blood of rats with CCl 4-induced cirrhosis with ascites represents episodes of bacterial translocation,” Hepatology, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 633–639, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. L. Muñoz, A. Albillos, M. Nieto et al., “Mesenteric Th1 polarization and monocyte TNF-α production: first steps to systemic inflammation in rats with cirrhosis,” Hepatology, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 411–419, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. M. Úbeda, L. Muñoz, M. Borrero et al., “Critical role of the liver in the induction of systemic inflammation in rats with preascitic cirrhosis,” Hepatology, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 2086–2095, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. I. Cirera, T. M. Bauer, M. Navasa et al., “Bacterial translocation of enteric organisms in patients with cirrhosis,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 32–37, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  40. T. M. Bauer, B. Steinbrückner, F. E. Brinkmann et al., “Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in patients with cirrhosis: prevalence and relation with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 96, no. 10, pp. 2962–2967, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. C. Guarner, B. A. Runyon, S. Young, M. Heck, and M. Y. Sheikh, “Intestinal bacterial overgrowth and bacterial translocation in cirrhotic rats with ascites,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 1372–1378, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. F. Casafont Morencos, G. De las Heras Castano, L. M. Ramos, M. J. Lopez Arias, F. Ledesma, and F. P. Romero, “Small bowel bacterial overgrowth in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis,” Digestive Diseases and Sciences, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 1252–1256, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. B. Campillo, P. Pernet, P. N. Bories, J. P. Richardet, M. Devanlay, and C. Aussel, “Intestinal permeability in liver cirrhosis: relationship with severe septic complications,” European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 755–759, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. G. Ersöz, A. Aydin, S. Erdem, D. Yüksel, U. Akarca, and K. Kumanlioglu, “Intestinal permeability in liver cirrhosis,” European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 409–412, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. E. Kakazu, N. Kanno, Y. Ueno, and T. Shimosegawa, “Extracellular branched-chain amino acids, especially valine, regulate maturation and function of monocyte-derived dendritic cells,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 179, no. 10, pp. 7137–7146, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. S. Auffermann-Gretzinger, E. B. Keeffe, and S. Levy, “Impaired dendritic cell maturation in patients with chronic, but not resolved, hepatitis C virus infection,” Blood, vol. 97, no. 10, pp. 3171–3176, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. S. Kakumu, S. Ito, T. Ishikawa et al., “Decreased function of peripheral blood dendritic cells in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma with hepatitis B and C virus infection,” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 431–436, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. T. Ninomiya, S. M. F. Akbar, T. Masumoto, N. Horiike, and M. Onji, “Dendritic cells with immature phenotype and defective function in the peripheral blood from patients with hepatocellular carcinoma,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 323–331, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. E. Kakazu, Y. Ueno, Y. Kondo et al., “Branched chain amino acids enhance the maturation and function of myeloid dendritic cells ex vivo in patients with advanced cirrhosis,” Hepatology, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 1936–1945, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. E. Kakazu, Y. Ueno, Y. Kondo et al., “Plasma L-cystine/L-glutamate imbalance increases tumor necrosis factor-alpha from CD14+ circulating monocytes in patients with advanced cirrhosis,” PloS One, vol. 6, no. 8, Article ID e23402, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  51. M. E. Patti, E. Brambilla, L. Luzi, E. J. Landaker, and C. R. Kahn, “Bidirectional modulation of insulin action by amino acids,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 101, no. 7, pp. 1519–1529, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  52. C. J. Lynch, H. L. Fox, T. C. Vary, L. S. Jefferson, and S. R. Kimball, “Regulation of amino acid-sensitive TOR signaling by leucine analogues in adipocytes,” Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 77, no. 2, pp. 234–251, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  53. P. B. Dennis, A. Jaeschke, M. Saitoh, B. Fowler, S. C. Kozma, and G. Thomas, “Mammalian TOR: a homeostatic ATP sensor,” Science, vol. 294, no. 5544, pp. 1102–1105, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. F. Fallarino, C. Volpi, F. Fazio et al., “Metabotropic glutamate receptor-4 modulates adaptive immunity and restrains neuroinflammation,” Nature Medicine, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 897–902, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. V. Mieulet, L. Yan, C. Choisy et al., “TPL-2-mediated activation of MAPK downstream of TLR4 signaling is coupled to arginine availability,” Science Signaling, vol. 3, no. 135, p. ra61, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. M. T. Pallotta, C. Orabona, C. Volpi et al., “Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase is a signaling protein in long-term tolerance by dendritic cells,” Nature Immunology, vol. 12, no. 9, pp. 870–878, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  57. R. Sucher, K. Fischler, R. Oberhuber et al., “IDO and regulatory T cell support are critical for cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated Ag-4 Ig-mediated long-term solid organ allograft survival,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 188, no. 1, pp. 37–46, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  58. C. Francoz, D. Glotz, R. Moreau, and F. Durand, “The evaluation of renal function and disease in patients with cirrhosis,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 605–613, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. L. Caregaro, F. Menon, P. Angeli et al., “Limitations of serum creatinine level and creatinine clearance as filtration markers in cirrhosis,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 154, no. 2, pp. 201–205, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. M. Pirlich, O. Selberg, K. Böker, M. Schwarze, and M. J. Müller, “The creatinine approach to estimate skeletal muscle mass in patients with cirrhosis,” Hepatology, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 1422–1427, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. M. Walser, D. G. Davidson, and J. Orloff, “The renal clearance of alkali-stable inulin,” The Journal of clinical investigation, vol. 34, no. 10, pp. 1520–1523, 1955. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. Y. S. Seo, E. S. Jung, H. An et al., “Serum cystatin C level is a good prognostic marker in patients with cirrhotic ascites and normal serum creatinine levels,” Liver International, vol. 29, no. 10, pp. 1521–1527, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. H. S. Ahn, Y. S. Kim, S. G. Kim et al., “Cystatin C is a good predictor of hepatorenal syndrome and survival in patients with cirrhosis who have normal serum creatinine levels,” Hepato-Gastroenterology, vol. 59, no. 115-116, pp. 1168–1173, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  64. O. Tenstad, A. B. Roald, A. Grubb, and K. Aukland, “Renal handling of radiolabelled human cystatin C in the rat,” Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 409–414, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. A. L. Gerbes, V. Gülberg, M. Bilzer, and M. Vogeser, “Evaluation of serum cystatin C concentration as a marker of renal function in patients with cirrhosis of the liver,” Gut, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 106–110, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus