Table of Contents
ISRN Nanotechnology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 132797, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/132797
Research Article

Alumina Template Assistance in Titania Nanotubes Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell ( T i O 2 NT-DSSC) Device Fabrication

1Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Vanung University, Chung-Li 32061, Taiwan
2Department of Energy Engineering, National United University, 2 Lienda, Miaoli 36003, Taiwan

Received 9 February 2012; Accepted 27 February 2012

Academic Editors: M. Fernández-García and T. Vartanyan

Copyright © 2012 Kuang Hsuan Yang and Chien Chon Chen. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. B. O'Regan and M. Grätzel, “A low-cost, high-efficiency solar cell based on dye-sensitized colloidal TiO2 films,” Nature, vol. 353, no. 6346, pp. 737–740, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. M. Grätzel, “Photoelectrochemical cells,” Nature, vol. 414, no. 6861, pp. 338–344, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. K. Nazeeruddin, F. de Angelis, S. Fantacci et al., “Combined experimental and DFT-TDDFT computational study of photoelectrochemical cell ruthenium sensitizers,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 127, no. 48, pp. 16835–16847, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. Wei, Y. Konishi, H. Zhou, M. Yanagida, H. Sugihara, and H. Arakawa, “Highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells composed of mesoporous titanium dioxide,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 16, no. 13, pp. 1287–1293, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. N. Koide, A. Islam, Y. Chiba, and L. Han, “Improvement of efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on analysis of equivalent circuit,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A, vol. 182, no. 3, pp. 296–305, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. Law, L. E. Greene, J. C. Johnson, R. Saykally, and P. Yang, “Nanowire dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nature Materials, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 455–459, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. Y. Song, D. K. Kim, K. J. Ihn, S. M. Jo, and D. Y. Kim, “Electrospun TiO2 electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nanotechnology, vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 1861–1865, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. K. Y. Cheung, C. T. Yip, A. B. Djurišić, Y. H. Leung, and W. K. Chan, “Long K-doped titania and titanate nanowires on ti foil and fluorine-doped tin oxide/quartz substrates for solar-cell applications,” Advanced Functional Materials, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 555–562, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. G. K. Mor, K. Shankar, M. Paulose, O. K. Varghese, and C. A. Grimes, “Use of highly-ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays in dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Letters, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 215–218, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. Y. Chiba, A. Islam, Y. Watanabe, R. Komiya, N. Koide, and L. Han, “Dye-sensitized solar cells with conversion efficiency of 11.1%,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics II, vol. 45, no. 24–28, pp. L638–L640, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. R. Jennings, A. Ghicov, L. M. Peter, P. Schmuki, and A. B. Walker, “Dye-sensitized solar cells based on oriented TiO2 nanotube arrays: transport, trapping, and transfer of electrons,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 130, no. 40, pp. 13364–13372, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. K. Zhu, N. R. Neale, A. Miedaner, and A. J. Frank, “Enhanced charge-collection efficiencies and light scattering in dye-sensitized solar cells using oriented TiO2 nanotubes arrays,” Nano Letters, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 69–74, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. K. Shankar, G. K. Mor, H. E. Prakasam et al., “Highly-ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays up to 220 μm in length: use in water photoelectrolysis and dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nanotechnology, vol. 18, no. 6, Article ID 065707, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. C. C. Chen, H. W. Chung, C. H. Chen et al., “Fabrication and characterization of anodic titanium oxide nanotube arrays of controlled length for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 112, no. 48, pp. 19151–19157, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. H. Imai, Y. Takei, K. Shimizu, M. Matsuda, and H. Hirashima, “Direct preparation of anatase TiO2 nanotubes in porous alumina membranes,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 9, no. 12, pp. 2971–2972, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. H. Imai, M. Matsuta, K. Shimizu, H. Hirashima, and N. Negishi, “Preparation of TiO2 fibers with well-organized structures,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 10, no. 9, pp. 2005–2006, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. K. Shimizu, H. Imai, H. Hirashima, and K. Tsukuma, “Low-temperature synthesis of anatase thin films on glass and organic substrates by direct deposition from aqueous solutions,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 351, no. 1-2, pp. 220–224, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. Y. Chen, J. C. Crittenden, S. Hackney, L. Sutter, and D. W. Hand, “Preparation of a novel TiO2-based p-n junction nanotube photocatalyst,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 1201–1208, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. C. C. Chen, J. H. Chen, and C. G. Chao, “Post-treatment method of producing ordered array of anodic aluminum oxide using general purity commercial (99.7%) aluminum,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 1529–1533, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  20. G. Shi, J. Liang, G. Chen, and S. Du, “Comparison of tensile properties between NiCoCrAl/YSZ microlaminates and the monolithic NiCoCrAl foil fabricated by EB-PVD,” Materials Letters, vol. 63, no. 20, pp. 1665–1667, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. S. H. Chen, C. C. Chen, and C. G. Chao, “Novel morphology and solidification behavior of eutectic bismuth-tin (Bi-Sn) nanowires,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 481, no. 1-2, pp. 270–273, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. S. Lin, C. C. Chen, E. W. G. Diau, and T. F. Liu, “Fabrication and characterization of eutectic gold-silicon (Au-Si) nanowires,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 206, no. 1–3, pp. 425–430, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. C. C. Chen, Y. Bisrat, Z. P. Luo, R. E. Schaak, C. G. Chao, and D. C. Lagoudas, “Fabrication of single-crystal tin nanowires by hydraulic pressure injection,” Nanotechnology, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 367–374, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. W. C. Say and C. C. Chen, “Formation of tin whiskers and spheres on anodic aluminum oxide template,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 46, no. 11, pp. 7577–7580, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  25. C. G. Kuo and C. C. Chen, “Technique for self-assembly of tin nano-particles on anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates,” Materials Transactions, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 1102–1104, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  26. C. G. Kuo, C. C. Chen, S. J. Hsieh, and W. C. Say, “Fabrication of bismuth nanoballs using thermal oil reflow,” Journal of the Ceramic Society of Japan, vol. 116, no. 1359, pp. 1193–1198, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  27. W. C. Say and C. C. Chen, “An efficient technique for the fabrication of nano-size particles of lead-bismuth alloy,” Journal of the Ceramic Society of Japan, vol. 116, no. 1350, pp. 288–290, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. C. C. Chen, C. G. Kuo, and C. G. Chao, “Template assisted fabrication of tin nanospheres by thermal expansion and rapid solidification process,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 1524–1528, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  29. C. C. Chen, C. G. Kuo, J. H. Chen, and C. G. Chao, “Nanoparticles of Pb-Bi eutectic nucleation and growth on alumina template,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 43, no. 12, pp. 8354–8359, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  30. J. S. Lin, Y. C. Chen, C. C. Chen, L. Y. Luo, W. G. Diau, and T. F. Liu, “Fluorescence dynamics of zinc protoporphyrin in solution and inside anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) nano-channel arrays,” Journal of the Chinese Chemical Society, vol. 53, no. 6, pp. 1405–1412, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  31. J. S. Lin, Y. C. Chen, C. C. Chen, W. G. Diau, and T. F. Liu, “Aggregation of zinc protoporphyrin in anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) nanoporous environments,” Journal of the Chinese Chemical Society, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 201–208, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  32. C. C. Chen, W. C. Say, S. J. Hsieh, and E. W. G. Diau, “A mechanism for the formation of annealed compact oxide layers at the interface between anodic titania nanotube arrays and Ti foil,” Applied Physics A, vol. 95, no. 3, pp. 889–898, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. W. C. Say, C. C. Chen, and Y. H. Shiu, “Monitoring the effects of growing titania nanotubes on titanium substrate by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 48, no. 3, Article ID 035004, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. C. C. Chen, J. S. Lin, W. G. Diau, and T. F. Liu, “Self-cleaning characteristics on a thin-film surface with nanotube arrays of anodic titanium oxide,” Applied Physics A, vol. 92, no. 3, pp. 615–620, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  35. C. C. Chen, J. H. Chen, C. G. Chao, and W. C. Say, “Electrochemical characteristics of surface of titanium formed by electrolytic polishing and anodizing,” Journal of Materials Science, vol. 40, no. 15, pp. 4053–4059, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  36. C. C Chen and S. J. Hsieh, “Evaluation of Fluorine Ion Concentration in Titanium Oxide Nanotube (TiO2 NT) Anodization Process,” Journal of The Electrochemical Society, vol. 156, pp. K125–K130, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  37. C. C. Chen, W. D. Jehng, L. L. Li, and E. W. G. Diau, “Enhanced efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells using anodic titanium oxide nanotube arrays,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 156, no. 9, pp. C304–C312, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. H. Masuda, H. Yamada, M. Satoh, H. Asoh, M. Nakao, and T. Tamamura, “Highly ordered nanochannel-array architecture in anodic alumina,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 71, no. 19, pp. 2770–2772, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. K. T. Sunil and C. C. Hsueh, “Nanoscale pore formation dynamics during aluminum anodization,” Chaos, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 240–251, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus