International Scholarly Research Notices / 2012 / Article / Tab 1

Clinical Study

Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy Measured by Heart Rate Variability and Markers of Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Early Type 2 Diabetes

Table 1

General characteristics of participants.

Diabetic ( ) Control ( )
Mean (SD)Mean (SD)

Age (year) 50.93 (5.07) 48.73 (5.71)
Female (%) 52.8 58.8
Diabetes duration (years) 8.6 (6.67)
Height (cm) 164.36 (8.04) 163.01 (10.24)
Weight (Kg) 73.84 (11.23) 76.26 (11.79)
BMI (Kg/m2) 27.37 (3.88) 28.85 (4.79)
WC (cm) 94.18 (7.67) 93.71 (10.46)
FPG (mg/dL) 159.66 (56.76) 94.02 (13.32)§
HbA1c (%)7.95 (1.70) 5.27 (0.67)
Fasting plasma insulin (μIU/mL)10.29 (6.25) 7.53 (5.03)
HOMA-IR 3.01 (2.38) 2.52 (1.64)£
Urinary albumin (mg/L) 4.85 (3.16) 3.74 (2.80)
Creatinine (mg/dL) 0.96 (0.17) 0.97 (0.13)
hs-CRP (mg/L)4.8 (2.3) 3.9 (2.0)£
SBP (mmHg) 131.00 (17.55) 120.60 (14.50)*
DBP (mmHg)77.32 (8.77) 75.71 (10.47)
T-C (mg/dL) 202.27 (31.37) 171.05 (38.45)
HDL-C (mg/dL)40.69 (8.47) 46.45 (10.86)
LDL-C (mg/dL)115.08 (22.33) 93.33 (23.48)
TG (mg/dL) 181.91 168.98 (91.14)£
Metformin ( )(%)43 (76.0)
Glibenclamide ( ) (%) 41 (71.9)
Statin ( ) (%) 36 (63.1)
CIMT (mm) 0.73 (0.17) 0.61 (0.09)
FMD (%) 12.78 (7.54) 18.09 (10.64)
CACS§95.46 (294.12) 24.25 (102.92)£

Data are , means ± SD.
WC: waist circumference, FPG: fasting plasma glucose, HOMA-IR: homeostatic model assessment, SBP: systolic blood pressure, DBP: diastolic blood pressure, T-C: total cholesterol, TG: triglyceride, CIMT: carotid intima-media thickness, FMD: (brachial artery) flow-mediated dilation, and CACS: coronary artery calcium.
, , and §Agatston score.
£By Mann-Whitney test.