Table of Contents
ISRN Pathology
Volume 2012, Article ID 232171, 6 pages
Research Article

Ki-67 Labeling Index in Primary Invasive Breast Cancer from Sudanese Patients: A Pilot Study

1Department of Molecular Biology, National Cancer Institute (NCI-UG), University of Gezira, P.O. Box 20, Hospital Street, Wad Medani, Sudan
2Department of Medicine, Dentistry and Biotechnology, “G. d’Annunzio” University and Unit of General Pathology, Aging Research Center (CeSI), “G. d'Annunzio” University Foundation, via Colle dell’Ara, 66013 Chieti, Italy
3Department of Histopathology & Cytopathology, Radiation & Isotope Centre Khartoum (RICK), Algaser Street, P.O. Box 846, Khartoum, Sudan
4Division of Pathology, European School of Oncology (IEO), via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan, Italy

Received 6 November 2012; Accepted 22 November 2012

Academic Editors: L. Colomo, K. Nakanishi, and M. A. Sughayer

Copyright © 2012 Khalid Dafaallah Awadelkarim et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Ki-67 labeling index has been linked to patient outcome in breast cancer patients. However, very few published reports have examined Ki-67 labeling index in African breast cancer patients. Sixty-two Sudanese breast cancer patients with primary invasive tumors were immunostained for Ki-67, ER, PR, Her-2/neu, CK5/6, and CK17. Ki-67 labeling index ranged from 0% to 50%, with a median of 5% (interquartile range 0–10). Low Ki-67 labeling index (immunostaining < 10%) was detected in 43/62 (69.4%) with a median of 0 (interquartile range 0–5), whereas high Ki-67 labeling index (immunostaining ≥ 10%) was revealed in 19/62 (30.6%) with a median of 20 (interquartile range 12–26). Ki-67 labeling index was significantly associated with tumor grade ( , Mann-Whitney Test). There were no significant group differences between Ki-67 labeling index and ER ( ), PR ( ), Her-2/neu ( ), CK5/6 ( ), CK17 ( ), pathologic stage ( ), tumor histology ( ), breast cancer subtypes ( ), tumor size ( ), and age at diagnosis ( ). These results suggested that Ki-67 labeling index correlates with tumor differentiation and not with the tumor size or any other tested marker in Sudanese breast cancers. Thus, Ki-67 labeling index could be considered as a reliable measure of tumor proliferative fraction in Sudan.