Table of Contents
ISRN Toxicology
Volume 2012, Article ID 247072, 10 pages
Research Article

Toxicity Assessment of Expired Pesticides to Green Algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata

1Toxicology, International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology (IIBAT), Padappai, Kancheepuram District, Tamil Nadu 601301, India
2Bio-organic Chemistry, Central Leather Research Institute, Adayar, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600 020, India

Received 26 August 2012; Accepted 1 October 2012

Academic Editors: F. Fernández-Piñas and G. J. McBean

Copyright © 2012 G. Satyavani et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. M. Raj and K. Ravichandran, “Study of soil microflora indicating pesticide contamination of Cauvery River belt in India,” Indian Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 80–82, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  2. S. S. Sexton, Z. Lei, and D. Zilberman, “The economics of pesticides and pest control,” International Review of Environmental and Resource Economics, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 271–326, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. B. S. Hundal, Anand, and S. Ramandeep, “Pesticide marketing: the Indian scenario,” ICFAI Journal of Managerial Economics, vol. 4, pp. 32–37, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  4. K. H. Kabir, M. A. Rahman, M. S. Ahmed, M. D. H. Prodhan, and M. W. Akon, “Determination of residue of Diazinon and Carbosulfan in Brinjal and Quinalphos in Yard Long Bean under supervised field trial,” Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 503–513, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  5. PAN UK, “Pesticide and poverty, a case study on trade and utilization of Pesticides in Tanzania: implication to Stockpiling,” Agenda for Environment and Responsible Development, Final Report, Tanzania, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  6. A. A. Khooharo, A study of public and private sector pesticide extension and marketing services for cotton crop [Ph.D. thesis], Sindh Agriculture University, Sindh, Pakistan, 2008.
  7. P. K. Shetty, M. Murugan, and K. G. Sreeja, “Crop protection stewardship in India: wanted or unwanted,” Current Science, vol. 95, no. 4, pp. 457–464, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. Srilankamirror, “Hayleys change labels of expired pesticides,” 2011,
  9. Guardian News Bureau, “RBYF seizes expired pesticides,” vol. 22, no. 92, Rni Regd. no. 40948/90, The Meghalaya Guardian, Shillong, India, 2011.
  10. Mansa, “Booked for selling expired pesticides,” TheTribune, R. Chengappa Ed., Chandigarh, India, 2002,
  11. M. Modise, “The status of obsolete pesticides in Botswana and strategies to prevent future accumulations,” in Proceedings of the OECD-FAO-UNDP Workshop, Alexandria, Va, USA, September 2000.
  12. P. A. N. Nigeria, “Strategic Assessment of the Status of POPs Pesticides Trading in South Western Nigeria,” Pesticides Action Network (PAN) Nigeria project, Nigeria, Anglophone, Africa, 2007.
  13. N. Jayashree, “Are pesticides turning into poison spray?” Times of India, 2010,
  14. C. S. Ram, “Obsolete pesticdes stockpiles in Nepal and Its environmental impact,” Tech. Rep., Forum for Protection of Public Interest, Kathmandu, Nepal, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  15. P. A. N. UK, “Pesticide use, accumulations and impacts: a case study in the Rift Valley, Ethiopia,” Environment and Social Assessment International, 2006,,.
  16. US EPA, National Pesticide Survey-Summary, Washington, DC, USA, 1990.
  17. A. Mwandia and T. Eloise, “Obsolete pesticides in Africa—raising awareness of social and environmental implications,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Pesticide Use in Developing Countries: Environmental Fate, Effects and Public Health Implications, pp. 1–8, 2008.
  18. S. Bista, S. Aryal, and R. Maharjan, “Pesticide stock inventory and possible contamination in Nepal,” in Proceedings of Inception Workshop Implementation of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) Enabling Activities in Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal, January 2004.
  19. A. K. Cetin and N. Mert, “Growth rate of Scenedesmus acutus (Meyen) in cultures exposed to trifluralin,” Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 631–633, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. “The importance of addressing the problem of obsolete pesticide stocks. Country guidelines,” FAO pesticide disposal series 11, Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations, Rome, Italy, 2010,
  21. A. El Jay, “Toxic effects of organic solvents on the growth of Chlorella vulgaris and Selenastrum capricornutum,” Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 191–198, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. G. F. Lee and L. A. Jones, “Agriculturally related water quality problems in the San Joaquin River,” Resource Management, Water Quality, Agriculture, Track 3, pp. 324–340, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  23. J. B. Belden, R. J. Gilliom, J. D. Martin, and M. J. Lydy, “Relative toxicity and occurrence patterns of pesticide mixtures in streams draining agricultural watersheds dominated by corn and soybean production,” Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 90–100, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. OECD, “Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD),” in Guideline for the Testing of Chemicals, no. 201, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  25. BCPC, The Pesticide Manual, BCPC, 13th edition, 2003.
  26. West Inc. and G. Dave, “TOXSTAT,” Version 3.5, University of Wyoming, Wyo, USA, 1996.
  27. G. Satyavani, R. A. Gopi, S. Ayyappan, P. Balakrishnamurthy, and P. Neelakanta Reddy, “Toxicity effect of expired pesticides to freshwater fish, Labeo rohita,” The Journal of Agriculture and Environment, vol. 12, pp. 1–9, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  28. K. Jamil, G. P. Das, A. P. Shaik, S. S. Dharmi, and S. Murthy, “Epidemiological studies of pesticide-exposed individuals and their clinical implications,” Current Science, vol. 92, no. 3, pp. 340–345, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. A. Ambrus, D. J. Hamilton, H. A. Kuiper, and K. D. Racke, “Significance of impurities in the safety evaluation of crop protection products (IUPAC technical report),” Pure and Applied Chemistry, vol. 75, no. 7, pp. 937–973, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. A. Sanyal and P. Dureja, “Isolation and identification of impurities in technical quinalphos,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 40, pp. 2013–2015, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  31. D. J. Hamilton, A. Ambrus, R. M. Dieterle et al., “Regulatory limits for pesticide residues in water (IUPAC technical report),” Pure and Applied Chemistry, vol. 75, no. 8, pp. 1123–1155, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S. J. Larson, P. D. Capel, and M. S. Majewski, “Analysis of key topics-environmental significance,” in Pesticides in Surface Waters. Distribution, Trends, and Governing Factors, R. J. Gilliom, Ed., vol. 3 of Pesticides in the Hydrologic System, chapter 6, U.S. Geological Survey, National Water Quality Assessment Program, Ann Arbor Press, Chelsea, Mich, USA, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  33. W. J. Allender and J. Keegan, “Determination of chlorpyrifos and its major breakdown products in technical formulations,” Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 313–319, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. B. Shen and S. Qi, “Pesticide Pollution,” Journal of Environment Sciences, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 31–47, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  35. G. W. Stratton, “Effects of the herbicide atrazine and its degradation products, alone and in combination, on phototrophic microorganisms,” Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 35–42, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. W. Battaglin and J. Fairchild, “Potential toxicity of pesticides measured in midwestern streams to aquatic organisms,” Water Science and Technology, vol. 45, no. 9, pp. 95–103, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J. Miller, M. Miller, K. Larsen, V. deVlaming, and P. G. Green, “Identification of causes of Algal Toxicity in Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta,” Report Prepared for Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board, Sacramento, Calif, USA, AQUA-Science, Davis, Calif, USA, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  38. J. L. Miller, M. J. Miller, K. L. Larsen, V. deVlaming, P. G. Green, and T. M. Young, “Identification of causes of Algal Toxicity in Sacramento-San Joaquin Watershed (California, USA),” in Toxicity Reduction and Toxicity Identifications (TIE) For Effluents, Ambient Waters and Other Aqueous Media, Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 2003. View at Google Scholar