Table of Contents
ISRN Electronics
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 271836, 11 pages
Review Article

A Short Historical Survey of Functional Hardware Languages

Lingcore Laboratory, 2721 Grand Oaks Loop, Cedar Park, TX 78613, USA

Received 24 January 2012; Accepted 11 February 2012

Academic Editors: S.-F. Hsiao and A. Mercha

Copyright © 2012 Gang Chen. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Functional programming languages offer a high degree of abstractions and clean semantics, which are desirable for hardware descriptions. This short historical survey is about functional languages specifically created for hardware design and verification. It also includes those hardware languages or formalisms which are strongly influenced by functional programming style.