Table of Contents
ISRN Pharmacology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 295853, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/295853
Research Article

Anticonvulsant Drugs, Brain Glutamate Dehydrogenase Activity and Oxygen Consumption

1Neurochemistry Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, National School of Biological Sciences, National Polytechnic Institute, Carpio Y Plan de Ayala S/No., Col. Casco de Santo Tomás, 11340 México, DF, Mexico
2Superior School of Medicine, National Polytechnic Institute, Plan de San Luis y Díaz Mirón S/No., Col. Casco de Santo Tomás, 11340 México, DF, Mexico

Received 17 November 2011; Accepted 18 December 2011

Academic Editor: T. W. Stone

Copyright © 2012 Lourdes A. Vega Rasgado et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. H. S. White, “Comparative anticonvulsant and mechanistic profile of the established and newer antiepileptic drugs,” Epilepsia, vol. 40, supplement 1, pp. S2–S10, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. E. M. Urbanska, S. J. Czuczwar, Z. Kleinrok, and W. A. Turski, “Excitatory amino acids in epilepsy,” Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, vol. 13, no. 1-2, pp. 25–39, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. Doherty and R. Dingledine, “The roles of metabotropic glutamate receptors in seizures and epilepsy,” Current Drug Targets-CNS & Neurological Disorders, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 251–260, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. R. Dingledine, K. Borges, D. Bowie, and S. F. Traynelis, “The glutamate receptor ion channels,” Pharmacological Reviews, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 7–61, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. W. Löscher, “New visions in the pharmacology of anticonvulsion,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 342, no. 1, pp. 1–13, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. C. G. Parsons, W. Danysz, and G. Quack, “Glutamate in CNS disorders as a target for drug development: an update,” Drug News and Perspectives, vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 523–569, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. D. E. Pellegrini-Giampietro, J. A. Gorter, M. V. L. Bennett, and R. S. Zukin, “The GluR2 (GluR-B) hypothesis: Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors in neurological disorders,” Trends in Neurosciences, vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 464–470, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. Plaitakis, P. Flessas, A. B. Natsiou, and P. Shashidharan, “Glutamate dehydrogenase deficiency in cerebellar degenerations: clinical, biochemical and molecular genetic aspects,” Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences, vol. 20, supplement 3, pp. S109–S116, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. G. H. Malthankar-Phatak, N. De Lanerolle, T. Eid et al., “Differential glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity profile in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy,” Epilepsia, vol. 47, no. 8, pp. 1292–1299, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. A. L. Sherwin, “Neuroactive amino acids in focally epileptic human brain: a review,” Neurochemical Research, vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 1387–1395, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. D. M. Raizen, A. Brooks-Kayal, L. Steinkrauss, G. I. Tennekoon, C. A. Stanley, and A. Kelly, “Central nervous system hyperexcitability associated with glutamate dehydrogenase gain of function mutations,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 146, no. 3, pp. 388–394, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. F. Cerchia and P. Mantegazzini, “Convulsive action of high pressure oxygen in various animal species,” Annali di Medicina Navale, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 127–136, 1956. View at Google Scholar
  13. J. D. Wood, W. J. Watson, and A. J. Ducker, “Oxygen poisoning in various mammalian species and the possible role of gamma-aminobutyric acid metabolism,” Journal of Neurochemistry, vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 1067–1074, 1967. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. K. Gulati, A. Ray, G. Pal, and V. K. Vijayan, “Possible role of free radicals in theophylline-induced seizures in mice,” Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 241–245, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. M. Prigol, E. A. Wilhelm, C. C. Schneider, J. B. T. Rocha, C. W. Nogueira, and G. Zeni, “Involvement of oxidative stress in seizures induced by diphenyl diselenide in rat pups,” Brain Research, vol. 1147, no. 1, pp. 226–232, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. Fujimoto, H. Katsuki, T. Kume, S. Kaneko, and A. Akaike, “Mechanisms of oxygen glucose deprivation-induced glutamate release from cerebrocortical slice cultures,” Neuroscience Research, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 179–187, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. L. L. Guyot, F. G. Diaz, M. H. O'Regan, S. McLeod, H. Park, and J. W. Phillis, “Real-time measurement of glutamate release from the ischemic penumbra of the rat cerebral cortex using a focal middle cerebral artery occlusion model,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 299, no. 1-2, pp. 37–40, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A. Melani, L. Pantoni, C. Corsi et al., “Striatal outflow of adenosine, excitatory amino acids, γ-aminobutyric acid, and taurine in awake freely moving rats after middle cerebral artery occlusion: correlations with neurological deficit and histopathological damage,” Stroke, vol. 30, no. 11, pp. 2448–2455, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. H. J. Strecker, “Glutamic dehydrogenase,” Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 128–140, 1953. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. O. H. Lowry, N. J. Rosebrough, A. L. Farr, and R. J. Randall, “Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 193, no. 1, pp. 265–275, 1951. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. B. M. Anderson, C. D. Anderson, and J. E. Churchich, “Inhibition of glutamic dehydrogenase by pyridoxal 5-phosphate,” Biochemistry, vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 2893–2900, 1966. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. Torreilles, J. Marchand, and M. C. Guerin, “NAD(P) adducts as protective agents against glutamate dehydrogenase inactivation by pyridoxal 5-phosphate: a tool for the study of oxidized coenzyme activated state in enzymatic evolutive and abortive complexes,” Biochimie, vol. 64, no. 6, pp. 429–434, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. E. Kun and B. Achmatowicz, “Studies with specific enzyme inhibitors. Ix. Selective inhibitory effects of substrate analogues on the catalytic activity of crystalline glutamate dehydrogenase,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 240, pp. 2619–2627, 1965. View at Google Scholar
  24. N. Talal and G. M. Tomkins, “Allosteric properties of glutamate dehydrogenases from different sources,” Science, vol. 146, no. 3649, pp. 1309–1311, 1964. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. D. McCarthy, J. M. Walker, and K. F. Tipton, “Purification of glutamate dehydrogenase from ox brain and liver. Evidence that commercially available preparations of the enzyme from ox liver have suffered proteolytic cleavage,” Biochemical Journal, vol. 191, no. 2, pp. 605–611, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. P. Y. Chee, J. L. Dahl, and L. A. Fahien, “The purification and properties of rat brain glutamate dehydrogenase,” Journal of Neurochemistry, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 53–60, 1979. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. V. G. Erwin, “Enhancement of brain glutamate dehydrogenase activity and glutamate oxidation by adenine nucleotides,” Molecular Pharmacology, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 615–624, 1969. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. W. Loscher and M. Vetter, “In vivo effects of aminooxyacetic acid and valproic acid on nerve terminal (synaptosomal) GABA levels in discrete brain areas of the rat. Correlation to pharmacological activities,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 34, no. 10, pp. 1747–1756, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. D. Wood and S. J. Peekser, “A dual mechanism for the anticonvulsant action of aminooxyacetic acid,” Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 534–540, 1976. View at Google Scholar
  30. J. W. Geddes and J. D. Wood, “Changes in the amino acid content of nerve endings (synaptosomes) induced by drugs that alter the metabolism of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid,” Journal of Neurochemistry, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 16–24, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus