Table of Contents
ISRN Obstetrics and Gynecology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 368571, 7 pages
Research Article

Maternal and Perinatal Outcomes in Second Hemoglobin Measurement in Nonanemic Women at First Booking: Effect of Altitude of Residence in Peru

1Department of Biological and Physiological Sciences, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima 31, Peru
2Instituto de Investigaciones de la Altura, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima 31, Peru
3Department of Reproductive Health and Research, World Health Organization, Geneve, Switzerland

Received 9 December 2011; Accepted 11 January 2012

Academic Editors: I. Diez-Itza and M. Kühnert

Copyright © 2012 Gustavo F. Gonzales et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Objective. To determine changes in hemoglobin concentration at second measurements after a normal hemoglobin concentration was detected at first booking during pregnancy at low and at high altitudes. Methods. This is a secondary analysis of a large database obtained from the Perinatal Information System in Peru which includes 379,816 pregnant women and their babies from 43 maternity units in Peru. Results. Most women remained with normal hemoglobin values at second measurement (75.1%). However, 21.4% of women became anemic at the second measurement. In all, 2.8% resulted with moderate/severe anemia and 3.5% with erythrocytosis (Hb>14.5 g/dL). In all cases Hb was higher as altitude increased. Risk for moderate/severe anemia increased associated with higher gestational age at second measurement of hemoglobin, BMI <19.9 kg/m2, living without partner, <5 antenatal care visits, first parity, multiparity, and preeclampsia. Lower risk for moderate/severe anemia was observed with normal high Hb level at first booking living at moderate and high altitude, and high BMI. Conclusion. Prevalence of anemia increases as pregnancy progress, and that a normal value at first booking may not be considered sufficient as Hb values should be observed throughout pregnancy. BMI was a risk for anemia in a second measurement.