Table of Contents
ISRN Ecology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 384892, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/384892
Review Article

A Habitat-Based Framework for Communicating Natural Resource Condition

1Integration and Application Network, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, P.O. Box 775, Cambridge, MD 21613, USA
2US Geological Survey, National Climate Change & Wildlife Science Center, Reston, VA 20192, USA
3Department of Geography and the Environment, University of Richmond, 28 Westhampton Way, Richmond, VA 23173, USA

Received 8 December 2011; Accepted 7 January 2012

Academic Editors: D. Gerten and D. Sánchez-Fernández

Copyright © 2012 Tim J. B. Carruthers et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. R. Karr and E. W. Chu, “Biological monitoring and assessment: using multimetric indexes effectively,” EPA 235-R97-001, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash, USA, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  2. M. A. Harwell, V. Myers, T. Young et al., “A framework for an ecosystem integrity report card: examples from south Florida show how an ecosystem report card links societal values and scientific information,” BioScience, vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 543–556, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  3. S. G. Fancy, J. E. Gross, and S. L. Carter, “Monitoring the condition of natural resources in US national parks,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, vol. 151, no. 1–4, pp. 161–174, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. W. C. Dennison, T. R. Lookingbill, T. J. B. Carruthers, J. M. Hawkey, and S. L. Carter, “An eye-opening approach to developing and communicating integrated environmental assessments,” Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 307–314, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. R. Karr, “Assessment of biotic integrity using fish communities,” Fisheries, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 21–27, 1981. View at Google Scholar
  6. N. Roth, M. Southerland, J. Chaillou et al., “Maryland biological stream survey: development of a fish index of biotic integrity,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, vol. 51, no. 1-2, pp. 89–106, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. N. E. Roth, M. T. Southerland, J. C. Chaillou, P. F. Kazyak, and S. A. Stanko, “Refinement and validation of a fish index of biotic integrity for Maryland streams,” Chesapeake Bay and Watershed Programs: Monitoring and Non-Tidal Assessment CBWP-MANTA-EA-00, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  8. T. D. Harrison and A. K. Whitfield, “A multi-metric fish index to assess the environmental condition of estuaries,” Journal of Fish Biology, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 683–710, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. S. L. Carter, G. Mora-Bourgeois, T. R. Lookingbill, T. J. B. Carruthers, and W. C. Dennison, “The challenge of communicating monitoring results to effect change,” The George Wright Forum, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 48–58, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  10. U. S. EPA, “Mid-atlantic highland streams assessment,” Tech. Rep. EPA903/R-00/015, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 3, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  11. U. S. EPA, “A framework for assessing and reporting on ecological condition: an SAB Report,” Tech. Rep. EPA-SAB-EPEC-02-009, Environmental Protection Agency, Science Advisory Board, Washington, DC, USA, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  12. J. G. Ferreira, “Development of an estuarine quality index based on key physical and biogeochemical features,” Ocean and Coastal Management, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 99–122, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. A. Kiddon, J. F. Paul, H. W. Buffum et al., “Ecological condition of US Mid-Atlantic estuaries, 1997-1998,” Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol. 46, no. 10, pp. 1224–1244, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. L. Turner, D. Tracey, J. Tilden, and W. C. Dennison, Where River Meets Sea: Exploring Australia's Estuaries, Cooperative Research Centre for Coastal Zone, Estuary and Waterways Management, Brisbane, Australia, 2004.
  15. S. B. Bricker, B. Longstaff, W. Dennison et al., “Effects of nutrient enrichment in the nation's estuaries: a decade of change,” Harmful Algae, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 21–32, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. H. R. Delcourt and P. A. Delcourt, “Quaternary landscape ecology: relevant scales in space and time,” Landscape Ecology, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 23–44, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. D. C. Schneider, “The rise of the concept of scale in ecology,” BioScience, vol. 51, no. 7, pp. 545–553, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. D. F. Boesch, “Global Warming and the Free State: Comprehensive Assessment of Climate Change Impacts in Maryland,” Report of the Scientific and Technical Working Group of the Maryland Commission on Climate Change, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Cambridge, Mass, USA, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  19. N. Knowlton and J. B. C. Jackson, “Shifting baselines, local impacts, and global change on coral reefs,” PLoS Biology, vol. 6, no. 2, article e54, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. H. Stommel, “Varieties of oceanographic experience,” Science, vol. 139, no. 3555, pp. 572–576, 1963. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. H. Steele, “The ocean ‘landscape’,” Landscape Ecology, vol. 3, no. 3-4, pp. 185–192, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. C. E. Wazniak, M. R. Hall, T. J. B. Carruthers, B. Sturgis, W. C. Dennison, and R. J. Orth, “Linking water quality to living resources in a mid-atlantic lagoon system, USA,” Ecological Applications, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. S64–S78, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. Williams, B. Longstaff, R. Llanso, C. Buchanan, and W. C. Dennison, “Development and evaluation of a spatially-explicit index of Chesapeake Bay health,” Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol. 59, no. 1–3, pp. 14–25, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. N. E. Roth, M.T. Southerland, G. Mercurio et al., “State of the streams: 1995–1997 maryland biological stream survey results,” Tech. Rep. CBWP-MANTA-EA-99-6, Chesapeake Bay and Watershed Programs, Monitoring and Non-Tidal Assessment, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  25. C. L. Arnold Jr. and C. J. Gibbons, “Impervious surface coverage: the emergence of a key environmental indicator,” Journal of the American Planning Association, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 243–269, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. U. S. EPA, The Clean Air Act. Washington United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC, USA, 2004, http://epw.senate.gov/envlaws/cleanair.pdf.
  27. P. A. Townsend, T. R. Lookingbill, C. C. Kingdon, and R. H. Gardner, “Spatial pattern analysis for monitoring protected areas,” Remote Sensing of Environment, vol. 113, no. 7, pp. 1410–1420, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. A. Levin, “The problem of pattern and scale in ecology,” Ecology, vol. 73, no. 6, pp. 1943–1967, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. T. J. B. Carruthers, L. Carter, L. Florkowski, J. Runde, and W. Dennison, “Rock creek natural resource condition assessment,” Natural Resource Report NPS/NCRN/NRR – 2009/109, National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colo, USA, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  30. B. Mackintosh, Rock Creek Park: An Administrative History, United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Washington, DC, USA, 1985.
  31. “An act authorizing the establishing of a public park in the District of Columbia,” in Proceedings of the 51st United States Congress, September 1890, Ch. 1001, 26 Stat 492.
  32. R. P. Brooks, T. J. O'Connell, D. H. Wardrop, and L. E. Jackson, “Towards a regional index of biological integrity: the example of forested riparian ecosystems,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, vol. 51, no. 1-2, pp. 131–143, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. Y. Ding, W. Wang, X. Cheng, and S. Zhao, “Ecosystem health assessment in inner Mongolia region based on remote sensing and GIS,” The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, vol. 37, no. B1, pp. 1029–1034, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  34. M. Anderson, P. Bourgeron, M.T. Bryer et al., International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States. Volume II. The National Vegetation Classification System: List of Types, The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, Va, USA, 1998.
  35. D. H. Grossman, D. Faber-Langendoen, A. S. Weakley et al., International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States. Volume I. The National Vegetation Classification System: Development, Status, and Applications, The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, Va , USA, 1998.
  36. J. R. Anderson, E. E. Hardy, J. T. Roach, and R. E. Witmer, “A Land use and land cover classification system for use with remote sensor data,” U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 964, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Va, USA, 1976. View at Google Scholar
  37. IUCN, “Habitats classification scheme (version 3.0),” International Union for the Conservation of Nature, 2007, http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes/habitats-classification-scheme-ver3.
  38. J. P. Schmit and J. P. Campbell, “National Capital Region Network 2006 forest vegetation monitoring report,” Tech. Rep. NPS/NCRN/NRTR-2007/046, National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colo, USA, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  39. J. P. Schmit and J. P. Campbell, “National Capital Region Network 2007 forest vegetation monitoring report,” Tech. Rep. NPS/NCRN/NRTR-2008/125, National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colo, USA, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  40. J. Hadidian, J. Saver, C. Swarth et al., “A citywide breeding bird survey for Washington, D.C.,” Urban Ecosystems, vol. 1, pp. 87–102, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  41. D. K. Dawson and M. G. Efford, “National Capital Region Network–Protocol for monitoring forest-nesting birds,” Tech. Rep., National Park Service parks, Fort Collins, Colo, USA, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  42. S. Bates, “National Capital Region Network 2006 deer monitoring report,” Tech. Rep. NPS/NCRN/NRTR-2007/033, National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colo, USA, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  43. M. Norris, J. P. Schmit, and J. Pieper, “National Capital Region Network 2005-2006 water resources monitoring report,” Tech. Rep. NPS/NCRN/NRTR-2007/066, Natural Resource Program Center, Fort Collins, Colo, USA, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  44. R. H. Hilderbrand, R. L. Raesly, and D. M. Boward, National Capital Region Network-Biological Stream Survey Protocol, 2007.
  45. S. D. Mattfield, E. H. Grant, and L. L. Bailey, “Amphibian monitoring in the National Capital Region: a focus on lentic and lotic habitats,” Tech. Rep. NPS/NCRN/NRTR-2008/088, National Park Service, National Cancer Research Network, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  46. M. E. Montgomery, “Predicting defoliation by the gypsy moth using egg mass counts and a helper variable,” General Technical Report NE-146, USDA Forest Service, Proceedings US Department of Agriculture Interagency Gypsy Moth Research Review, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  47. A. Liebhold, K. Thorpe, J. Ghent, and D. B. Lyons, “Gypsy moth egg mass sampling for decision-making: a user's guide,” USDA-Forest Service, NA-TP-04-94, 1994, http://www.sandyliebhold.com/pubs/Liebhold_etal_1994_guide_color.pdf.
  48. D. G. McCullough and N. W. Siegert, “Estimating potential emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) populations using ash inventory data,” Journal of Economic Entomology, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 1577–1586, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. C. Jones, J. McCann, and S. McConville, “A guide to the conservation of forest interior dwelling birds in the Chesapeake Bay Critical Area. Report to the Critical Area Commission for the Chesapeake and Atlantic Coastal Bays,” 2000, http://www.dnr.state.md.us/criticalarea/pdfs/tweetyjune_2000.pdf.
  50. P. Koskimies, “Birds as a tool in environmental monitoring,” Annales Zoologici Fennici, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 153–166, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. S. B. Horsley, S. L. Stout, and D. S. deCalesta, “White-tailed deer impact on the vegetation dynamics of a northern hardwood forest,” Ecological Applications, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 98–118, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. D. S. Decalesta, “The science of overabundance: deer ecology and population management,” in Deer Ecosystem Management, W. J. McShea, H. B. Underwood, and J. H. Rappole, Eds., pp. 267–279, Springer, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  53. C. M. Stewart, W. J. Mcshea, and B. P. Piccolo, “The impact of white-tailed deer on agricultural landscapes in 3 national historical parks in Maryland,” Journal of Wildlife Management, vol. 71, no. 5, pp. 1525–1530, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. W. H. McWilliams, T. W. Bowersox, D. A. Gansner, L. H. McCormick, and S. L. Stout, “Landscape-level regeneration adequacy for native hardwood forests of Pennsylvania,” Tech. Rep. NE-197, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Radnor, Pa, USA, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  55. W. K. Carter and T. S. Fredericksen, “Tree seedling and sapling density and deer browsing incidence on recently logged and mature non-industrial private forestlands in Virginia, USA,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 242, no. 2-3, pp. 671–677, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. D. A. Marquis, R. L. Ernst, and S. L. Stout, “Prescribing silvicultural treatments in hardwood stands of the Alleghenies (Revised),” General Technical Report NE-96, United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  57. J. Bowman, A. Jaeger, and L. Fahrig, “Dispersal distance of mammals is proportional to home range size,” Ecology, vol. 83, no. 7, pp. 2049–2055, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. H. S. He and D. J. Mladenoff, “The effects of seed dispersal on the simulation of long-term forest landscape change,” Ecosystems, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 308–319, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. S. M. Lussier, S. N. da Silva, M. Charpentier et al., “The influence of suburban land use on habitat and biotic integrity of coastal Rhode Island streams,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, vol. 139, no. 1–3, pp. 119–136, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. T. M. Conway, “Impervious surface as an indicator of pH and specific conductance in the urbanizing coastal zone of New Jersey, USA,” Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 85, no. 2, pp. 308–316, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. U. S. EPA, “Ambient water quality criteria recommendations—Rivers and streams in nutrient ecoregion,” IX. EPA 822-B-00-019. 3., 2000, http://www.epa.gov/waterscience/criteria/nutrient/ecoregions/rivers/rivers_9.pdf.
  62. U. S. EPA, “National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations,” 2009, http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=ecfr&rgn=div5&view=text&node=40:22.0.1.1.5&idno=40.
  63. DCMR, “District of Columbia Municipal Regulations. Amendment to chapter 11 of Title 21, sections 1100 to 1106,” 2005, http://www.epa.gov/waterscience/standards/wqslibrary/dc/dc_3_register.pdf.
  64. U. S. EPA, “Freshwater recreation standards,” 2005, http://ddoe.dc.gov/ddoe/frames.asp?doc=/ddoe/lib/ddoe/wqd/WaterFinalRules06.pdf.
  65. J. B. Stribling, B. K. Jessup, J. S. White, D. Boward, and M. Hurd, “Development of a benthic index of biotic integrity for Maryland streams. Chesapeake Bay and watershed programs monitoring and non-tidal assessment,” Tech. Rep. CBWP-EA-98-3, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  66. D. I. MacKenzie, J. D. Nichols, J. E. Hines, M. G. Knutson, and A. B. Franklin, “Estimating site occupancy, colonization, and local extinction when a species is detected imperfectly,” Ecology, vol. 84, no. 8, pp. 2200–2207, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. D. I. MacKenzie, J. D. Nichols, J. A. Royle, K. H. Pollock, L. L. Bailey, and J. E. Hines, Occupancy Estimation and Modeling: Inferring Patterns and Dynamics of Species Occurrence, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 2005.
  68. L. L. Bailey, E. H. Campbell-Grant, and P. Mattfeldt, National Capital Region Network Amphibian Monitoring Protocol, 2007, http://science.nature.nps.gov/im/monitor/VitalSigns/BrowseProtocol.aspx/.
  69. NAAQS, “National Ambient Air Quality Standards,” 2008, http://www.epa.gov/air/criteria.html#6/.
  70. U. S. EPA, “Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter Vol I of II. EPA/600/P-99/002aF,” 2004, http://cfpub2.epa.gov/ncea/cfm/recordisplay.cfm?deid=87903.
  71. U. S. EPA, “Provisional Assessment of Recent Studies on Health Effects of Particulate Matter Exposure,” EPA/600/R-06/063, 2006, http://www.epa.gov/air/particlepollution/pdfs/ord_report_20060720.pdf.
  72. NPS, “2006 annual performance & progress report: air quality in National Parks,” Tech. Rep., National Parks Service, Fort Collins, CO, USA, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  73. L. J. Kline, D. D. Davis, J. M. Skelly, J. E. Savage, and J. Ferdinand, “Ozone sensitivity of 28 plant selections exposed to ozone under controlled conditions,” Northeastern Naturalist, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 57–66, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. D. W. Schindler, “Effects of acid rain on freshwater ecosystems,” Science, vol. 239, no. 4836, pp. 149–157, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. J. Dupont, T. A. Clair, C. Gagnon et al., “Estimation of critical loads of acidity for lakes in Northeastern United States and Eastern Canada,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, vol. 109, no. 1–3, pp. 275–291, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. J. Hendricks and J. Little, Thresholds for regional vulnerability analysis. National exposure research laboratory. U.S. EPA (E243-05), 2003, http://www.epa.gov/reva/docs/final_stressor_threshold_table.pdf.
  77. P. Greenfelt and E. Thornelof, “Critical loads of nitrogen—a workshop report,” Tech. Rep. 41, Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen. Regional Vulnerability Assessment Program National Exposure Research Laboratory U.S. EPA (E243-05), 1992, (E243-05). View at Google Scholar
  78. M. Meili, K. Bishop, L. Bringmark et al., “Critical levels of atmospheric pollution: criteria and concepts for operational modelling of mercury in forest and lake ecosystems,” The Science of the Total Environment, vol. 304, no. 1–3, pp. 83–106, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. C. R. Hammerschmidt and W. F. Fitzgerald, “Methylmercury in freshwater fish linked to atmospheric mercury deposition,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 40, no. 24, pp. 7764–7770, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. U. S. EPA, “Water quality criterion for the protection of human health: methylmercury,” Tech. Rep. EPA-823-R-01-001, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  81. D. S. DeCalesta and S. L. Stout, “Relative deer density and sustainability: a conceptual framework for integrating deer management with ecosystem management,” Wildlife Society Bulletin, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 252–258, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. W. M. Healy, “Influence of deer on the structure and composition of oak forests in central Massachesetts,” in The Science of Overabundance: Deer Ecology and Population Management, W. J. McShea, H. B. Underwood, and J. H. Rappole, Eds., pp. 249–266, Springer, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  83. J. H. Volstad, N. E. Roth, G. Mercurio, M. T. Southerland, and D. E. Strebel, “Using environmental stressor information to predict the ecological status of Maryland non-tidal streams as measured by biological indicators,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, vol. 84, no. 3, pp. 219–242, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. B. J. Blasius and R. W. Merritt, “Field and laboratory investigations on the effects of road salt (NaCl) on stream macroinvertebrate communities,” Environmental Pollution, vol. 120, no. 2, pp. 219–231, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. B. T. Hart, P. Bailey, R. Edwards et al., “A review of the salt sensitivity of the Australian freshwater biota,” Hydrobiologia, vol. 210, no. 1-2, pp. 105–144, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. C. Piscart, J. C. Moreteau, and J. N. Beisel, “Biodiversity and structure of macroinvertebrate communities along a small permanent salinity gradient (Meurthe River, France),” Hydrobiologia, vol. 551, no. 1, pp. 227–236, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. S. Kaushal, P. Groffman, G. Likens et al., “Increased salinization of fresh water in the Northeastern United States,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 102, no. 38, pp. 13517–13520, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. J. E. Petersen, V. S. Kennedy, W. C. Dennison, and W. M. Kemp, Eds., Enclosed Experimental Ecosystems and Scale: Tools for Understanding and Managing Coastal Ecosystems, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2009.
  89. M. L. Parry, O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palutikof, P. J. van der Linden, and C. E. Hanson, Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2007.
  90. H. Center, The State of the Nation's Ecosystems: Measuring Land, Waters, and Living Resources of The United States, Island Press, 2008.
  91. B. S. Brown, W. R. Munns Jr., and J. F. Paul, “An approach to integrated ecological assessment of resource condition: the Mid-Atlantic estuaries as a case study,” Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 66, no. 4, pp. 411–427, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. F. J. Pantus and W. C. Dennison, “Quantifying and evaluating ecosystem health: a case study from Moreton Bay, Australia,” Environmental Management, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 757–771, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. R. S. Morin, A. M. Leibold, E. R. Luzader, A. J. Lister, K. W. Gottschalk, and D. B. Twardus, “Mapping host species abundance of three major exotic forest pests,” Research Paper NE-726, Northeastern Research Station, USDA forest service, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  94. S. J. Andelman and W. F. Fagan, “Umbrellas and flagships: efficient conservation surrogates or expensive mistakes?” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 97, no. 11, pp. 5954–5959, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. R. V. O'Neill and R. H. Gardner, “Sources of uncertainty in ecological models,” in Methodology in Systems Modelling and Simlulation, B. P. Zeigler, M. S. Elzas, G. J. Kliv, and T. I. Oren, Eds., pp. 447–463, North-Holland Publishing, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1979. View at Google Scholar
  96. T. F. H. Allen and T. B. Starr, Hierarchy: Perspectives for Ecological Complexity, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill, USA, 1982.
  97. P. Comer, D. Faber-Langendoen, R. Evans et al., Ecological Systems of the United States: A Working Classification of U.S. Terrestrial Systems, NatureServe, Arlington, Tex, USA, 2003.
  98. A. N. Strahler, “Quantitative analysis of watershed geomorphology,” American Geophysical Union Transactions, vol. 38, pp. 913–920, 1957. View at Google Scholar
  99. J. Shaman, M. Stieglitz, and D. Burns, “Are big basins just the sum of small catchments?” Hydrological Processes, vol. 18, no. 16, pp. 3195–3206, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus