Table of Contents
ISRN Chemical Engineering
Volume 2012, Article ID 428974, 7 pages
Research Article

Study of Cellulose Interaction with Concentrated Solutions of Sulfuric Acid

Chemical Department, Designer Energy Ltd., Bergman Street, Rehovot 76100, Israel

Received 5 October 2012; Accepted 4 November 2012

Academic Editors: C. Perego and I. Poulios

Copyright © 2012 Michael Ioelovich. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. K. Meyer and H. Mark, “For the crystallizable part of cellulose,” Chemische Berichte, vol. 61, pp. 593–614, 1928. View at Google Scholar
  2. K. Freudenberg, W. Kuhn, W. Dürr, and W. Belz, “Hydrolysis of polysaccharides,” Chemische Berichte, vol. 63, pp. 1510–1530, 1930. View at Google Scholar
  3. K. Hess, Chemistry of Cellulose and Its Satellites, Chemical & Technology, Moscow, Russia, 1934.
  4. V. I. Sharkov, Hydrolytic Production, Forest & Paper, Moscow, Russia, 1950.
  5. V. M. Nikitin, Wood and Cellulose Chemistry, Forest & Paper, Moscow, Russia, 1960.
  6. N. A. Vedernikov and V. K. Kalnina, Wood Cell Wall and Its Changes at Chemical Treatments, Chemistry, Riga, Latvia, 1972.
  7. F. Camacho, P. Gonzalez-Tello, E. Jurado, and A. Robles, “Microcrystalline-cellulose hydrolysis with concentrated sulphuric acid,” Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, vol. 67, pp. 350–356, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  8. M. Ioelovich and E. Larina, “Parameters of crystalline structure and their influence on the reactivity of cellulose I,” Cellulose Chemistry and Technology, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 3–12, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. P. H. Clifford, “Hydrocellulose—a summary of the literature,” Journal of The Textile Institute, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 69–77, 1923. View at Google Scholar
  10. A. Obolenskaya, Z. Eltinskaya, and A. Leonovich, Laboratory Manual on Wood and Cellulose Chemistry, Ecology, Moscow, Russia, 1991.
  11. V. I. Sharkov, Quantitative Chemical Analysis of Plant Raw Materials, Forest Ind, Moscow, Russia, 1976.
  12. R. Rowell, M.Handbook of Wood Chemistry and Wood Composites, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 2005.
  13. D. Fengel and G. Wegener, Wood Chemistry, Ultrastructure, Reactions, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, Germany, 1984.
  14. TAPPI Standard. Acid-insoluble lignin in wood and pulp, T222 om-02, 2002.
  15. X. M. Dong, J. F. Revol, and D. G. Gray, “Effect of microcrystallite preparation conditions on the formation of colloid crystals of cellulose,” Cellulose, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 19–32, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. Roman and W. T. Winter, “Effect of sulfate groups from sulfuric acid hydrolysis on the thermal degradation behavior of bacterial cellulose,” Biomacromolecules, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 1671–1677, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. I. Z. Selim, A. A. F. Zikry, and S. H. Gaber, “Physicochemical properties of prepared cellulose sulfates: II. From linen pulp bleached by the H2O2 method,” Polymer—Plastics Technology and Engineering, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 1387–1402, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. Ioelovich and A. Leykin, “Nano-cellulose and its application,” SITA, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 17–24, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  19. M. Ioelovich and A. Leykin, “Microcrystalline cellulose: nano-structure formation,” Cellulose Chemistry and Technology, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 313–317, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. Ioelovich, “Cellulose as a nanostructured polymer: a short review,” BioResources, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 1403–1418, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. Ioelovich, “Optimal conditions for isolation of nanocrystalline cellulose particles,” Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 9–13, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  22. Y. Habibi, L. A. Lucia, and O. J. Rojas, “Cellulose nanocrystals: chemistry, self-assembly, and applications,” Chemical Reviews, vol. 110, no. 6, pp. 3479–3500, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. R. R. Lahiji, X. Xu, R. Reifenberger, A. Raman, A. Rudie, and R. J. Moon, “Atomic force microscopy characterization of cellulose nanocrystals,” Langmuir, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 4480–4488, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. Y. Li and A. Ragauskas, “Cellulose nano-whiskers as a reinforcing filler in polyurethanes,” Advances in Diverse Industrial Applications of Nanocomposites, vol. 3, pp. 17–36, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  25. J. I. Morán, V. A. Alvarez, V. P. Cyras, and A. Vázquez, “Extraction of cellulose and preparation of nanocellulose from sisal fibers,” Cellulose, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 149–159, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. D. Y. Liu, X. W. Yuan, D. Bhattacharyya, and A. J. Easteal, “Characterisation of solution cast cellulose nanofibre—reinforced poly(lactic acid),” Express Polymer Letters, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 26–31, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. L. Ludueña, D. Fasce, V. A. Alvarez, and P. M. Stefani, “Nanocellulose from rice husk following alkaline treatment to remove silica,” BioResources, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 1440–1453, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. Yu, R. Yang, L. Huang, X. Cao, F. Yang, and D. Lin, “Preparation and characterization of bamboo nanocrystalline cellulose,” Bioresources, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 1802–1812, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  29. D. Bondeson, A. Mathew, and K. Oksman, “Optimization of the isolation of nanocrystals from microcrystalline cellulose by acid hydrolysis,” Cellulose, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 171–180, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. Elazzouzi-Hafraoui, Y. Nishiyama, J. L. Putaux, L. Heux, F. Dubreuil, and C. Rochas, “The shape and size distribution of crystalline nanoparticles prepared by acid hydrolysis of native cellulose,” Biomacromolecules, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 57–65, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. G. Siqueira, J. Bras, and A. Dufresne, “Luffa cylindrica as a lignocellulosic source of fiber, microfibrillated cellulose, and cellulose nanocrystals,” BioResources, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 727–740, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. A. Zakharov, M. Voronova, M. Radugin, T. Lebedeva, and N. Trutnev, “Structure and properties of cellulose isolated from water dispersion of nano-whiskers by freeze-drying method,” Chemistry of Plant Raw-Materials, vol. 4, pp. 31–36, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  33. H. Ono, Y. Shimaya, T. Hongo, and C. Yamane, “New aqueous dispersion of cellulose sub-micron particles,” Transactions of the Materials Research Society of Japan, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 569–572, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  34. H. Ono, T. Matsui, and I. Miyamoto, Cellulose dispersion, US Patent no. 6,541,627, 2003.
  35. R. Hashaikeh, T. Q. Hu, and R. Rerry, Crystalline sulphated cellulose II and its production from sulphuric acid hydrolysis of cellulose. US Patent Application no. 20100286387, 2010.
  36. M. Ioelovich, A. Leykin, and O. Figovsky, “Study of cellulose paracrystallinity,” BioResources, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 1393–1407, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. Y. Ioelovich and G. P. Veveris, “Cellulose II content determination by X-ray analysis using an internal standard,” Wood Chemistry, vol. 2, pp. 10–14, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. J. F. Revol, L. Godbout, X. M. Dong, D. G. Gray, H. Chanzy, and G. Maret, “Chiral nematic suspensions of cellulose crystallites—phase separation and magnetic field orientation,” Liquid Crystals, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 127–134, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  39. M. Ioelovich, “Nano-structural concept of papermaking,” SITA, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 52–60, 2009. View at Google Scholar