Table of Contents
ISRN Agronomy
Volume 2012, Article ID 492394, 9 pages
Research Article

Potentials and Challenges of Kolanut Production in Niger State, Nigeria

1Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria, Ibadan, Nigeria
2Department of Forest Resources Management, University of Ilorin, Ilorin 240003, Nigeria

Received 2 April 2012; Accepted 22 April 2012

Academic Editors: S. Thompson and S. Tsushima

Copyright © 2012 I. Ndagi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. T. Quarcoo, A Handbook on Kola, CRIN, Ibadan, Nigeria, 1973.
  2. A. M. Daramola, Insect Pests of Cola in Nigeria (Research bulletin), vol. 3, CRIN, Ibadan, Nigeria, 1978.
  3. A. M. Daramola, “The biology of the kola weevils Balanogastris kolae on Cola acuminata and C. Verticilata,” Insect Science and Its Application, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 201–205, 1981. View at Google Scholar
  4. A. M. Daramola, “Studies on the control of Kolanut weevils. Balanogastis kolae and sophrorhinus Sp (coleopteran curculionidae),” Tropical Stored Products Information, vol. 46, pp. 11–16, 1983. View at Google Scholar
  5. C. L. M. van Eijatten, Kola, Its Botany and Cultivation, vol. 59 of Communication, Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1969.
  6. O. Nzekwu, “Kola nut,” Nigeria Magazine, vol. 71, pp. 298–305, 1961. View at Google Scholar
  7. N. E. Egbe and O. Sobamiwa, “Utilization of cocoa, kola, coffee, cashew and tea in Nigeria,” in Progress in Tree Crop Research, pp. 217–224, CRIN, Ibadan, Nigeria, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  8. T. Quarcoo, “Development of koal and its future in Nigeria,” Proceedings of the Agricultural Society of Nigeria, vol. 6, 1969. View at Google Scholar
  9. V. J. Jacob, Yield characteristics, incompatibility and sterility studies in Cola nitida (Vent) Schott & Endlicher [Ph.D. thesis], University of Ibadan, 1973.
  10. O. A. Odegbaro, “Regeneration of old kola trees Cola nitida (Vent.) Schott & Endlicher by coppicing,” Turrialba, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 334–340, 1973. View at Google Scholar
  11. V. J. Jacob, “Self incompatibility of Cola nitida,” CRIN Annual Report, vol. 70, pp. 16–22, 1969. View at Google Scholar
  12. E. U. Asogwa, J. C. Anikwe, and F.C. Mokwunye, “Kola production and utilization for economic development,” African Scientist, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 217–222, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  13. L. K. Opeke, Tropical Commodity Tree Crops, Spectrum Books Limited, Ibadan, Nigeria, 2005.
  14. G. B. Beattie, “Soft drink flavours: their history and characteristics. 1: Cola for kola flavours,” The Flavour Industry, pp. 390–394, 1970. View at Google Scholar
  15. D. B. A. Ogutuga, “Chemical composition and potential commercial uses of kola nuts Cola nitida (Vent.) Schott & Endlicher,” Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science, vol. 8, pp. 121–125, 1975. View at Google Scholar
  16. M. A. O. Oladokun, “Objectives and achievements in Kola propagation. Research paper presented at a symposium to mark the 21st Anniversary of the Establishment of CRIN,” 1985. View at Google Scholar
  17. Niger State, Online Nigeria. Community Portal of Nigeria, 2003,
  18. E. U. Asogwa, A. H. Otuonye, F. C. Mokwunye, K. A. Oluyole, T. C. N. Ndubuaku, and E. O. Uwagboe, “Kolanut production, processing and marketing in the South-eastern states of Nigeria,” African Journal of Plant Science, vol. 5, no. 10, pp. 547–551, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  19. A. M. Daramola and T. A. Taylor, “Studies on the reinfestation of kola in store by kola weevils in Southern Nigeria,” Journal of Stored Products Research, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 61–63, 1975. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. A. M. Daramola and T. A. Taylor, “A new species of weevil from Nigeria—sophrorhinus gbanjaensis (Coleoptera: curculionidae),” Journal of Natural History, vol. 9, pp. 397–402, 1975. View at Google Scholar
  21. A. M. Daramola, “Studies on the survival of the kola weevils between the seasons of kola production in southern Nigeria,” Turrialna, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 309–310, 1974. View at Google Scholar
  22. E. U. Asogwa, T. C. N. Ndubuaku, and I. U. Mokwunye, “Occurrence of storage pest of kolanuts across the kola growing belt of Nigeria,” Agricultural Journal, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 258–262, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  23. A. M. Daramola, The bionomics of kola weevils, Sophrorhinus spp (coleoptera: curculionidae) [Ph.D. thesis], University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria, 1973.
  24. W. Esther, A. M. Petu-Ibikunle, A. Audu, and Y. Y. Shallagwa, “Assessment of damage and losses to kolanuts caused by kolanut weevils Balanogastis kolae (Desbr) Coleoptera: curculionidae,” African Journal of General Agriculture, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1–5, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  25. M. F. Ivbijaro, “Gamma-BHC residues in kola nuts Cola nitida and control of the kola nuts weevil Balanogastris kolae Desbr,” Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 1236–1238, 1977. View at Google Scholar
  26. A. Ojo, “Identification of insect pests of Kola,” Annual Report, Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria, Ibadan, Nigeria, 1979. View at Google Scholar
  27. A. C. Odebode, Post harvest rot of kolanuts caused by Botryodiplodia therobromae and Fusarium pallidoroseum [Ph.D. thesis], University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria, 1990.
  28. S. O. Agbeniyi, H. A. Otuonye, and A. R. Adedeji, “Mycoflora associated with post harvest processing stages of kola nut (Cola nitida Vent Scott and Endlicher),” The Journal of Food Technology in Africa, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 129–131, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  29. L. N. Dongo, K. Manjula, and S. B. Orisajo, “Occurrence of ochratoxin A in Nigerian kola nuts,” in Proceedings of the African Crop Science Conference Proceedings, vol. 8, pp. 2133–2135, 2007.
  30. G. Boorman, “Ed NTP Technical report on the toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of ochratoxin A (CAS No. 303-47-9) in F344/N Rats (Gavage Studies) (NIH Publication No 89-2813),” Tech. Rep., National Toxicology program, U.S Department of Health and Human Services, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  31. H. D. Haubeck, G. Lorkowski, E. Koelsch, and R. Roeschenthaler, “Immunosuppression by ochratoxin A and its prevention by phenylalanine,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 1040–1042, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S. Obrecht-Pflumio, T. Chassat, G. Dirheimer, and D. Marzin, “Genotoxicity of ochratoxin A by Salmonella mutagenicity test after bioactivation by mouse kidney microsomes,” Mutation Research, vol. 446, no. 1, pp. 95–102, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. K. Mayura, J. F. Edwards, E. A. Maull, and T. D. Phillips, “The effects of ochratoxin A on postimplantation rat embryos in culture,” Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 411–415, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. M. Castegnaro, H. Bartsch, and I. Chernozemsky, “Endemic nephropathy and urinary tract tumors in the Balkans,” Cancer Research, vol. 47, no. 13, pp. 3608–3609, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. S. O. Agbeniyi and M. S. Ayodele, “Effect of storage moulds on the nutritional quality of kolanuts in Nigeria,” Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 512–515, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. S. O. Agbeniyi and B. Fawole, “Effect of curing and pre-storage dip treatments on the control of storage mould of kola nuts,” European Food Research and Technology, vol. 208, no. 1, pp. 47–49, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. O. A. Olunloyo, “Fungi associated with stored kola nuts,” Nigerian Journal of Agricultural Science, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 51–59, 1979. View at Google Scholar
  38. F. Waterberg, P. Craven, and L. Marais, Common World Flowers of the Okavango Delta, Shellfield Guide Series II, Gamsberg, 1989.
  39. F. M. Room, “The mistletoe.T bangwensis and Cocao in West Africa,” in Proceedings of the 3rd International Cocoa Research Conference, pp. 522–527, Accra, Ghana, 1970.
  40. P. M. Room, “Some physiological aspect of the relation between cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and mistletoe. Theobroma bangwensis. (Engl. and K Krause),” Annals of Botany, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 169–174, 1971. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus