Table 1: Patients, operations and pathology. 𝑃 value given for two-sided Kruskal-Wallis and Fisher’s exact test. Figures that cause a statistically significant difference are printed bold. R0/R+: pancreatoduodenectomy with free/positive resection margins, M0: absence of distant metastasis at laparotomy, M+: presence of distant or peritoneal metastasis at laparotomy, bypass: palliative bypass procedures, GE: gastroenterostomy, HE: hepaticoenterostomy, and double: GE and HE.

ParameterResectionBypass 𝑃 value

𝑁 17271117
Age (years, median)6665670.211
Gender m : w77 : 9537 : 3472 : 450.020
BMI (kg/m2, median)2425230.166
Neoadjuvant CRx6/4%8/11%4/3%0.046
PreOP biliary drainage116/67%37/52%63/54%0.022
Gastric outlet obstruction16/9%4/6%40/34%<0.001
Diabetes mellitus41/24%25/35%34/29%0.188
Creatinine (mg/dL, median)
Bilirubin (mg/dL, median)
Resection proceduresWhipple 23/13%
PPPD 149/87%
Whipple 14/20%
PPPD 57/80%
Bypass proceduresDouble 79/68%
GE 30/26%
HE 8/7%
Portal venous resection57/33%34/48%——<0.001
OP Time (Min, median)445470240<0.001
pT4 tumors6/4%17/24%<0.001
Lymph node positive119/70%55/79%0.158
Distant metastasis3/2%3/4%80/68%<0.001