Table of Contents
ISRN Surgery
Volume 2012, Article ID 547017, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/547017
Review Article

Focus Issue: Neck Dissection for Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA

Received 2 November 2011; Accepted 21 November 2011

Academic Editors: D. Galetta, G. I. Salti, and D. E. Ziogas

Copyright © 2012 Kathryn M. Van Abel and Eric J. Moore. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. T. Lin, S. M. Cohen, G. L. Coppit, and B. B. Burkey, “Squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx and hypopharynx,” Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 59–74, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. R. R. Seethala, “Current state of neck dissection in the United States,” Head and Neck Pathology, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 238–245, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. A. Ferlito, A. Rinaldo, K. T. Robbins et al., “Changing concepts in the surgical management of the cervical node metastasis,” Oral Oncology, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 429–435, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. M. H. Weiss, L. B. Harrison, and R. S. Isaacs, “Use of decision analysis in planning a management strategy for the stage NO neck,” Archives of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, vol. 120, no. 7, pp. 699–702, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. L. W.T. Alkureishi, Z. Burak, J. A. Alvarez et al., “Joint practice guidelines for radionuclide lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel node localization in oral/oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma,” Annals of Surgical Oncology, vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 3190–3210, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. K. T. Pitman, J. T. Johnson, and E. N. Myers, “Effectiveness of selective neck dissection for management of the clinically negative neck,” Archives of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, vol. 123, no. 9, pp. 917–922, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. H. G. Gassner, A. N. Sabri, and K. D. Olsen, “Oropharyngeal malignancy,” in Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery Fourth Edition Review, C. W. Cummings et al., Ed., p. 93, Elsevier Mosby, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 2nd edition, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  8. R. Lindberg, “Distribution of cervical lymph node metastases from squamous cell carcinoma of the upper respiratory and digestive tracts,” Cancer, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 1446–1449, 1972. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. U. Harreus, “Malignant neoplasms of the oropharynx,” in Flint: Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery, chapter 100, Elsevier Mosby, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 5th edition, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  10. General Information about Oropharyngeal Cancer (Health Professional Version), National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health, 2011, http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/oropharyngeal/HealthProfessional/page1#Reference1.13.
  11. W. H. Hollinshead, Anatomy for Surgeons: The Head and Neck, vol. 1, Harper and Row, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 3rd edition, 1982.
  12. A. J. Ballantyne, “Significance of retropharyngeal nodes in cancer of the head and neck,” American Journal of Surgery, vol. 108, no. 4, pp. 500–504, 1964. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. Y. Hasegawa and H. Matsuura, “Retropharyngeal node dissection in cancer of the oropharynx and hypopharynx,” Head and Neck, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 173–180, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. D. M. Cohan, S. Popat, S. E. Kaplan, N. Rigual, T. Loree, and W. L. Hicks, “Oropharyngeal cancer: current understanding and management,” Current Opinion in Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 88–94, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. P. Shah, E. Strong, R. H. Spiro et al., “Surgical grand rounds. Neck dissection: current status and future possibilities,” Clinical Bulletin, vol. 11, pp. 25–33, 1981. View at Google Scholar
  16. K. Thomas Robbins, G. Clayman, P. A. Levine et al., “Neck dissection classification update: revisions proposed by the American Head and Neck Society and the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery,” Archives of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, vol. 128, no. 7, pp. 751–758, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. K. T. Robbins, S. Samant, and O. Ronen, “Neck dissection,” in Flint: Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery, chapter 121, Elsevier Mosby, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 5th edition, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  18. S. Y. Lee, Y. C. Lim, M. H. Song, J. S. Lee, B. S. Koo, and E. C. Choi, “Level IIb lymph node metastasis in elective neck dissection of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma,” Oral Oncology, vol. 42, no. 10, pp. 1017–1021, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. V. Grégoire and N. Lee, “Radiation therapy and management of the cervical lymph nodes and malignant skull base tumors,” in Flint: Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery, chapter 120, Elsevier Mosby, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 5th edition, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  20. D. G. Deschler and T. Day, Pocket Guide to Neck Dissection Classification and TNM Staging of Head and Neck Cancer, Committee for Head and Neck Surgery and Oncology, Neck Dissection Classification Committee American Head and Neck Society, American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation, Alexandria, Va, USA, 3rd edition, 2008.
  21. National Comprehensive Cancer Network: Head and Neck Cancer Guidelines (V.2.2011), http://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/head-and-neck.pdf.
  22. Y. C. Lim, B. S. Koo, J. S. Lee, J. Y. Lim, and E. C. Choi, “Distributions of cervical lymph node metastases in oropharyngeal carcinoma: therapeutic implications for the N0 neck,” Laryngoscope, vol. 116, no. 7, pp. 1148–1152, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. A. Woolgar, J. C. Beirne, E. D. Vaughan, H. G. Lewis-Jones, J. Scott, and J. S. Brown, “Correlation of histopathologic findings with clinical and radiologic assessments of cervical lymph-node metastases in oral cancer,” International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 30–37, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. W. F. McGuirt, D. W. Williams, J. W. Keyes et al., “A comparative diagnostic study of head and neck nodal metastases using positron emission tomography,” Laryngoscope, vol. 105, no. 4 I, pp. 373–375, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. C. A. Krabbe, P. U. Dijkstra, J. Pruim et al., “FDG PET in oral and oropharyngeal cancer. Value for confirmation of N0 neck and detection of occult metastases,” Oral Oncology, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 31–36, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. S. Shingaki, I. Suzuki, T. Nakajima, T. Hayashi, H. Nakayama, and M. Nakamura, “Computed tomographic evaluation of lymph node metastasis in head and neck carcinomas,” Journal of Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 233–237, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. A. Hannah, A. M. Scott, H. Tochon-Danguy et al., “Evaluation of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography with histopathologic correlation in the initial staging of head and neck cancer,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 236, no. 2, pp. 208–217, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. H. Ng, T. C. Yen, C. T. Liao et al., “18F-FDG PET and CT/MRI in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma: a prospective study of 124 patients with histologic correlation,” Journal of Nuclear Medicine, vol. 46, no. 7, pp. 1136–1143, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. H. S. Jeong, C. H. Baek, Y. I. Son et al., “Use of integrated 18F-FDG PET/CT to improve the accuracy of initial cervical nodal evaluation in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma,” Head and Neck, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 203–210, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. A. Quon, N. J. Fischbein, I. R. McDougall et al., “Clinical role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the management of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck and thyroid carcinoma,” Journal of Nuclear Medicine, vol. 48, no. 1, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. C. Richard, N. Prevot, A. P. Timoshenko et al., “Preoperative combined 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography imaging in head and neck cancer: does it really improve initial N staging?” Acta Oto-Laryngologica, vol. 130, no. 12, pp. 1421–1424, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. G. Farwell and N. Futran, “PET in otolaryngology—head and neck surgery: where, when, why, and how,” in Presented at the Academy of Otolaryngology, San Diego, Calif, USA, 2009.
  33. J. P. Rodrigo, J. P. Shah, C. E. Silver et al., “Management of the clinically negative neck in early-stage head and neck cancers after transoral resection,” Head and Neck, vol. 33, no. 8, pp. 1210–1219, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  34. U. Schroeder, M. Dietlein, C. Wittekindt et al., “Is there a need for positron emission tomography imaging to stage the N0 neck in T1-T2 squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity or oropharynx?” Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology, vol. 117, no. 11, pp. 854–863, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  35. J. P. Shah and Z. Gil, “Current concepts in management of oral cancer,” Oral Oncology, vol. 45, no. 4-5, pp. 394–401, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. E. M. Iype, P. Sebastian, A. Mathew, P. G. Balagopal, B. T. Varghese, and S. Thomas, “The role of selective neck dissection (I-III) in the treatment of node negative (N0) neck in oral cancer,” Oral Oncology, vol. 44, no. 12, pp. 1134–1138, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. T. Becker, C. G. Shores, K. K. Yu, and W. G. Yarbrough, “Molecular assay to detect metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma,” Archives of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, vol. 130, no. 1, pp. 21–27, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. A. Ferlito, C. E. Silver, and A. Rinaldo, “Elective management of the neck in oral cavity squamous carcinoma: current concepts supported by prospective studies,” British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 5–9, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. V. Burcia, V. Costes, J. L. Faillie et al., “Neck restaging with sentinel node biopsy in T1-T2N0 oral and oropharyngeal cancer: why and how?” Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, vol. 142, no. 4, pp. 592–597, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. S. J. Stoeckli, M. Pfaltz, G. L. Ross et al., “The second international conference on sentinel node biopsy in mucosal head and neck cancer,” Annals of Surgical Oncology, vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 919–924, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. B. J. Folz, C. E. Silver, A. Rinaldo et al., “An outline of the history of head and neck oncology,” Oral Oncology, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 2–9, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. T. Kocher, “Ueber radicalheilung des krebses,” Deutsche Zeitschrift für Chirurgie, vol. 13, no. 1-2, pp. 134–166, 1880. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. F. Jawdynski, “Przypadek raka pierwotnego szyi. t.z. raka skrzelowego Volkmann’a. Wycieecie nowotworu wraz z rezekcyjea teetnicy szjowej wspelnej I zyly szyjowej wewneetrznej,” Wyzdrowienie Gaz Lek, vol. 8, pp. 530–537, 1888. View at Google Scholar
  44. G. Crile, “Excision of cancer of the head and neck. With special reference to the plan of dissection based on one hundred and thirty-two operations,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 47, pp. 1780–1786, 1906. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. E. N. Myers and B. R. Gastman, “Neck dissection: an operation in evolution: Hayes Martin lecture,” Archives of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, vol. 129, no. 1, pp. 14–25, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. G. E. Ward and J. O. Robben, “A composite operation for radical neck dissection and removal of cancer of the mouth,” Cancer, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 98–109, 1951. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. E. Bocca and O. Pignataro, “A conservation technique in radical neck dissection,” Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology, vol. 76, no. 5, pp. 975–987, 1967. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. R. H. Jesse, A. J. Ballantyne, and D. Larson, “Radical or modified neck dissection: a therapeutic dilemma,” American Journal of Surgery, vol. 136, no. 4, pp. 516–519, 1978. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. U. P. Fisch and M. E. Sigel, “Cervical lymphatic system as visualized by lymphography,” Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology, vol. 73, pp. 870–882, 1964. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. Brazilian Head and Neck Cancer Study Group, “Results of a prospective trial on elective modified radical classical versus supraomohyoid neck dissection in the management of oral squamous carcinoma,” American Journal of Surgery, vol. 176, no. 5, pp. 422–427, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  51. K. T. Robbins, A. R. Shaha, J. E. Medina et al., “Consensus statement on the classification and terminology of neck dissection,” Archives of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, vol. 134, no. 5, pp. 536–538, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  52. J. E. Medina, “A rational classification of neck dissections,” Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, vol. 100, no. 3, pp. 169–176, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. A. Ferlito, “Classification and terminology of neck dissection,” Archives of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, vol. 128, no. 7, pp. 747–748, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. R. J. Taylor, J. C. Chepeha, T. N. Teknos et al., “Development and validation of the neck dissection impairment index: a quality of life measure,” Archives of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, vol. 128, no. 1, pp. 44–49, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. B. Leipzig, J. Y. Suen, and J. L. English, “Functional evaluation of the spinal accessory nerve after neck dissection,” American Journal of Surgery, vol. 146, no. 4, pp. 526–530, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. S. Sobol, C. Jensen, W. Sawyer, P. Costiloe, and N. Thong, “Objective comparison of physical dysfunction after neck dissection,” American Journal of Surgery, vol. 150, no. 4, pp. 503–509, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. D. B. Chepeha, P. T. Hoff, R. J. Taylor, C. R. Bradford, T. N. Teknos, and R. M. Esclamado, “Selective neck dissection for the treatment of neck metastasis from squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck,” Laryngoscope, vol. 112, no. 3, pp. 434–438, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. S. Wiegand, J. Esters, H. H. Müller et al., “Relevance of oropharyngeal cancer lymph node metastases in the submandibular triangle and the posterior triangle apex,” Anticancer Research, vol. 29, no. 11, pp. 4785–4790, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  59. C. T. Chone, A. N. Crespo, A. S. Rezende, D. S. Carvalho, and A. Altemani, “Neck lymph node metastases to the posterior triangle apex: evaluation of clinical and histopathological risk factors,” Head and Neck, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 564–571, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. D. A. Silverman, M. El-Hajj, S. Strome, and R. M. Esclamado, “Prevalence of nodal metastases in the submuscular recess (level IIb) during selective neck dissection,” Archives of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, vol. 129, no. 7, pp. 724–728, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. E. M. Skolnik, K. F. Yee, M. Friedman, and T. A. Golden, “The posterior triangle in radical neck surgery,” Archives of Otolaryngology, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 1–4, 1976. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. J. P. Shah, “Patterns of cervical lymph node metastasis from squamous carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract,” American Journal of Surgery, vol. 160, no. 4, pp. 405–409, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. F. C. Candela, K. Kothari, J. P. Shah, and R. M. Byers, “Patterns of cervical node metastases after squamous carcinoma of the oropharynx and hypopharynx,” Head and Neck, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 197–203, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. A. L. Weber, L. Romo, and S. Hashmi, “Malignant tumors of the oral cavity and oropharynx: clinical, pathologic, and radiologic evaluation,” Neuroimaging Clinics of North America, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 443–464, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. R. F. Osborne and J. J. Brown, “Carcinoma of the oral pharynx: an analysis of subsite treatment heterogeneity,” Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 71–80, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. P. E. Andersen, F. Warren, J. Spiro et al., “Results of selective neck dissection in management of the node-positive neck,” Archives of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, vol. 128, no. 10, pp. 1180–1184, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. G. S. Weinstein, H. Quon, B. W. O'Malley, G. G. Kim, and M. A. Cohen, “Selective neck dissection and deintensified postoperative radiation and chemotherapy for oropharyngeal cancer: a subset analysis of the University of Pennsylvania transoral robotic surgery trial,” Laryngoscope, vol. 120, no. 9, pp. 1749–1755, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. J. D. Spiro, R. H. Spiro, J. P. Shah, R. B. Sessions, and E. W. Strong, “Critical assessment of supraomohyoid neck dissection,” American Journal of Surgery, vol. 156, no. 4, pp. 286–289, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. J. Jose, A. P. Coatesworth, C. Johnston, and K. MacLennan, “Cervical node metastases in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: prospective analysis of prevalence and distribution,” Journal of Laryngology and Otology, vol. 116, no. 11, pp. 925–928, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. J. G. Vartanian, E. Pontes, I. M. G. Agra et al., “Distribution of metastatic lymph nodes in oropharyngeal carcinoma and its implications for the elective treatment of the neck,” Archives of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, vol. 129, no. 7, pp. 729–732, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. H. H. Coskun, L. Erisen, and O. Basut, “Selective neck dissection for clinically N0 neck in laryngeal cancer: is dissection of level IIb necessary?” Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, vol. 131, no. 5, pp. 655–659, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. B. Bussels, R. Hermans, A. Reijnders, P. Dirix, S. Nuyts, and W. Van den Bogaert, “Retropharyngeal nodes in squamous cell carcinoma of oropharynx: incidence, localization, and implications for target volume,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 733–738, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  73. R. M. Byers, P. F. Wolf, and A. J. Ballantyne, “Rationale for elective modified neck dissection,” Head and Neck Surgery, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 160–167, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. J. D. Spiro, R. H. Spiro, and E. W. Strong, “The management of chyle fistula,” Laryngoscope, vol. 100, no. 7, pp. 771–774, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. E. Y. Kim, D. W. Eisele, A. N. Goldberg, J. Maselli, and E. J. Kezirian, “Neck dissections in the United States from 2000 to 2006: volume, indications, and regionalization,” Head and Neck, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 768–773, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  76. S. W. Kang, S. H. Lee, H. R. Ryu et al., “Initial experience with robot-assisted modified radical neck dissection for the management of thyroid carcinoma with lateral neck node metastasis,” Surgery, vol. 148, no. 6, pp. 1214–1221, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus