Table of Contents
ISRN Endocrinology
Volume 2012, Article ID 601380, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/601380
Review Article

The Management of Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Hypoglycemic Agents

Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Sperimentale, Università del Piemonte Orientale, A. Avogadro, 28100 Novara, Italy

Received 4 January 2012; Accepted 29 January 2012

Academic Editors: C. Anderwald, A. Hishinuma, and J.-C. Jonas

Copyright © 2012 G. P. Carnevale Schianca et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. Turner, “Effect of intensive blood-glucose control with metformin on complications in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 34),” The Lancet, vol. 352, no. 9131, pp. 854–865, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. W. T. Friedewald, J. B. Buse, J. T. Bigger et al., “Effects of intensive glucose lowering in type 2 diabetes,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 358, no. 24, pp. 2545–2559, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  3. A. Patel, S. MacMahon, J. Chalmers et al., “Intensive blood glucose control and vascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 358, no. 24, pp. 2560–2572, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  4. W. Duckworth, C. Abraira, T. Moritz et al., “Glucose control and vascular complications in veterans with type 2 diabetes,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 360, no. 2, pp. 129–139, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  5. E. Mannucci, M. Monami, C. Lamanna, F. Gori, and N. Marchionni, “Prevention of cardiovascular disease through glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials,” Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 604–612, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  6. D. M. Nathan, J. B. Buse, M. B. Davidson et al., “Management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes: a consensus algorithm for the initiation and adjustment of therapy. A consensus statement from the American diabetes association and the European association for the study of diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 1963–1972, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  7. S. Salpeter, E. Greyber, G. Pasternak, and E. Salpeter, “Risk of fatal and nonfatal lactic acidosis with metformin use in type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 1, article CD002967, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. Holstein, A. Plaschke, and E. H. Egberts, “Lower incidence of severe hypoglycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with glimepiride versus glibenclamide,” Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 467–473, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. Belsey and G. Krishnarajah, “Glycaemic control and adverse events in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin + sulphonylurea: a meta-analysis,” Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, vol. 10, no. 1, supplement, pp. 1–7, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  10. R. Turner, “Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33) [published correction appears in Lancet. 1999;354:602],” The Lancet, vol. 352, no. 9131, pp. 837–853, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. I. Tzoulaki, M. Molokhia, V. Curcin et al., “Risk of cardiovascular disease and all cause mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes prescribed oral antidiabetes drugs: retrospective cohort study using UK general practice research database,” British Medical Journal, vol. 339, p. b4731, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. Gerich, P. Raskin, L. Jean-Louis, D. Purkayastha, and M. A. Baron, “PRESERVE-β: Two-year efficacy and safety of initial combination therapy with nateglinide or glyburide plus metformin,” Diabetes Care, vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 2093–2099, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. U.K. Prospective Diabetes Study Group, “Prospective diabetes study 16: overview of 6 years’ therapy of type II diabetes: a progressive disease [published correction appears in Diabetes. 1996;45:1655],” Diabetes, vol. 44, pp. 1249–1258, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  14. F. A. Van de Laar, P. L. B. Lucassen, R. P. Akkermans, E. H. Van de Lisdonk, G. E. H Rutten, and C. Van Weel, “Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors for type 2 diabetes mellitus (Cochrane Review),” in The Cochrane Library, vol. 2, Wiley, London, UK, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  15. J.-L. Chiasson, R. G. Josse, R. Gomis, M. Hanefeld, A. Karasik, and M. Laakso, “Acarbose for prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus: The STOP-NIDDM randomised trial,” The Lancet, vol. 359, no. 9323, pp. 2072–2077, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  16. S. Bolen, L. Feldman, J. Vassy et al., “Systematic review: Comparative effectiveness and safety of oral medications for type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 147, no. 6, pp. 386–399, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. C. Weyer, P. A. Tataranni, C. Bogardus, and R. E. Pratley, “Insulin resistance and insulin secretory dysfunction are independent predictors of worsening of glucose tolerance during each stage of type 2 diabetes development,” Diabetes Care, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 89–94, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  18. J. A. Dormandy, B. Charbonnel, D. J. Eckland et al., “Secondary prevention of macrovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes in the PROactive Study (PROspective pioglitAzone Clinical Trial in macroVascular Events): a randomised controlled trial,” The Lancet, vol. 366, no. 9493, pp. 1279–1289, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  19. Y. K. Loke, S. Singh, and C. D. Furberg, “Long-term use of thiazolidinediones and fractures in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis,” Canadian Medical Association Journal, vol. 180, no. 1, pp. 32–39, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  20. B. Richter, E. Bandeira-Echtler, K. Bergerhoff, C. Clar, and S. H. Ebrahim, “Pioglitazone for type 2 diabetes mellitus (Cochrane Review),” in The Cochrane Library, vol. 4, Wiley, London, UK, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  21. R. M. Lago, P. P. Singh, and R. W. Nesto, “Congestive heart failure and cardiovascular death in patients with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes given thiazolidinediones: a meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials,” The Lancet, vol. 370, no. 9593, pp. 1129–1136, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  22. E. Mannucci, M. Monami, C. Lamanna, G. F. Gensini, and N. Marchionni, “Pioglitazone and cardiovascular risk. A comprehensive meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials,” Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, vol. 10, no. 12, pp. 1221–1238, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  23. A. M. Lincoff, K. Wolski, S. J. Nicholls, and S. E. Nissen, “Pioglitazone and risk of cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A meta-analysis of randomized trials,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 298, no. 10, pp. 1180–1188, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  24. J. D. Lewis, A. Ferrara, T. Peng et al., “Risk of bladder cancer among diabetic patients treated with pioglitazone: Interim report of a longitudinal cohort study,” Diabetes Care, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 916–922, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. R. B. Goldberg, D. M. Kendall, M. A. Deeg et al., “A comparison of lipid and glycemic effects of pioglitazone and rosiglitazone in patients with type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia,” Diabetes Care, vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 1547–1554, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. R. Belfort, S. A. Harrison, K. Brown et al., “A placebo-controlled trial of pioglitazone in subjects with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 355, no. 22, pp. 2297–2307, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  27. R. A. DeFronzo, D. Tripathy, D. C. Schwenke et al., “Pioglitazone for diabetes prevention in impaired glucose tolerance,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 364, no. 12, pp. 1104–1115, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. H. Elrick, L. Stimmler, C. J. Hlad, and Y. Arai, “Plasma insulin response to oral and intravenous glucose administration,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 24, pp. 1076–1082, 1964. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. W. Creutzfeldt, “The entero-insular axis in type 2 diabetes—incretins as therapeutic agents,” Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology and Diabetes, vol. 109, no. 2, pp. S288–S303, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  30. B. T. Srinivasan, J. Jarvis, K. Khunti, and M. J. Davies, “Recent advances in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a review,” Postgraduate Medical Journal, vol. 84, no. 996, pp. 524–531, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  31. R. E. Amori, J. Lau, and A. G. Pittas, “Efficacy and safety of incretin therapy in type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 298, no. 2, pp. 194–206, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  32. M. Monami, N. Marchionni, and E. Mannucci, “Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials,” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 160, no. 6, pp. 909–917, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. B. R. Shah, J. E. Hux, A. Laupacis, B. Zinman, and C. Van Walraven, “Clinical inertia in response to inadequate glycemic control: Do specialists differ from primary care physicians?” Diabetes Care, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 600–606, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. S. J. Griffin, K. Borch-Johnsen, M. J. Davies et al., “Effect of early intensive multifactorial therapy on 5-year cardiovascular outcomes in individuals with type 2 diabetes detected by screening (ADDITION-Europe): a cluster-randomised trial,” The Lancet, vol. 378, no. 9786, pp. 156–167, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. S. G. P. Carnevale, C. Cerutti, F. Corlianò et al., “Type 2 diabetes diagnosed by the oral glucose tolerance test. Evidence for a heterogenous presentation of the disease,” in Proceedings of the 20th World Diabetes Congress (IDF '09), Montreal, Canda, October 2009.