Table of Contents
ISRN Pharmaceutics
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 636743, 8 pages
Research Article

Development and Stability Studies of Novel Liposomal Vancomycin Formulations

1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Western University of Health Sciences, 309 E. 2nd Street, Pomona, CA 91766, USA
2Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA 91766, USA

Received 29 August 2011; Accepted 24 October 2011

Academic Editors: A. A. Abdel-Aziz, A. N. Assimopoulou, and C. Safak

Copyright © 2012 Krishna Muppidi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A promising strategy to improve the therapeutic efficiency of antimicrobial agents is targeted therapy. Although vancomycin has been considered a gold standard for the therapy of MRSA pneumonia, clinical failure rates have also been reported owing to its slow, time-dependent bactericidal activity, variable lung tissue penetration and poor intracellular penetration into macrophages. Liposomal encapsulation has been established as an alternative for antimicrobial delivery to infected tissue macrophages and offers enhanced pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics and decreased toxicity compared to standard preparations. The aim of the present work is to prepare vancomycin in two different liposomal formulations, conventional and PEGylated liposomes using different methods. The prepared formulations were optimized for their particle size, encapsulation efficiency and physical stability. The dehydration-rehydration was found to be the best preparation method. Both the conventional and PEGylated liposomal formulations were successfully formulated with a narrow particle size and size distribution and % encapsulation efficiency of 9 ± 2 and 1 2 ± 3 , respectively. Both the formulations were stable at 4 C for 3 months. These formulations were successfully used to evaluate for their intracellular killing of MRSA and in vivo pharmacokinetic and bio-distribution studies.