International Scholarly Research Notices / 2012 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Time in e-Learning Research: A Qualitative Review of the Empirical Consideration of Time in Research into e-Learning

Table 1

Answers found in the review for the five guiding questions.

QuestionAnswers found in the review# of papers ( đť‘› = 2 4 )% of papers

Conceptualisation of timeTime as the while during which a phenomenon is taking place1041.7%
Time as the moment in which a phenomenon takes place312.5%
Time as the temporal distance between two phenomena833.3%
Time as the evolution of a phenomenon729.2%
Introduction of time into an explicative modelVariable-based model2083.3%
Model of a process416.7%
Introduction of time into the research processIntroduction into the phase of defining dimensions and variables2395.8%
Introduction into the analytic phase312.5%
Units used for analysing and measuring timeUnits based on formal time1562.5%
Units based on internal components of the setting1041.7%
Theoretical-based units312.5%
Data used for studying timeElectronic log files1250%
Questionnaires, surveys, and interviews625%
Learning process students’ products14.2%
Institutional documents14.2%
Setting design1041.7%

The categories in each question are not exclusive (indeed they are only exclusive in the second question); that is, one and the same approach can include, for example, two different ideas of time, can introduce time into both phases, can simultaneously use units of different nature, and can combine different kinds of data. For this reason, in each question, the frequencies of each of the categories do not total 24, and the percentages do not total 100.

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