Time in e-Learning Research: A Qualitative Review of the Empirical Consideration of Time in Research into e-Learning
Answers found in the review for the five guiding questions.
Answers found in the review
# of papers ()
% of papers
Conceptualisation of time
Time as the while during which a phenomenon is taking place
Time as the moment in which a phenomenon takes place
Time as the temporal distance between two phenomena
Time as the evolution of a phenomenon
Introduction of time into an explicative model
Model of a process
Introduction of time into the research process
Introduction into the phase of defining dimensions and variables
Introduction into the analytic phase
Units used for analysing and measuring time
Units based on formal time
Units based on internal components of the setting
Data used for studying time
Electronic log files
Questionnaires, surveys, and interviews
Learning process students’ products
The categories in each question are not exclusive (indeed they are only exclusive in the second question); that is, one and the same approach can include, for example, two different ideas of time, can introduce time into both phases, can simultaneously use units of different nature, and can combine different kinds of data. For this reason, in each question, the frequencies of each of the categories do not total 24, and the percentages do not total 100.
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