Table of Contents
ISRN Pediatrics
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 685302, 8 pages
Research Article

Risk Factors of Antibiotic Misuse for Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Children: Results from a Cross-Sectional Knowledge-Attitude-Practice Study in Greece

1Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Thessaly, Thessaly, 41222 Larisa, Greece
2Second Department of Paediatrics, Aglaia Kyriakou Children’s Hospital, University of Athens, 11527 Athens, Greece
3Paediatric Department, Larnaca General Hospital, 6043 Larnaca, Cyprus
4First Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Thessaly, 41110 Larisa, Greece
5Department of Paediatrics, Agia Sofia Children’s Hospital, University of Athens, 11527 Athens, Greece

Received 17 May 2012; Accepted 27 June 2012

Academic Editors: R. Bhimma, V. P. Choudhry, and G. D. Overturf

Copyright © 2012 Sotiria G. Panagakou et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) are common in children. The cause of URTIs is usually viral, but parents’ attitudes often contribute to inappropriate prescription of antibiotics, promoting antibiotic resistance. The objective of this study was to identify possible risk factors associated with antibiotic misuse in Greece, a country with high levels of antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance. Methods. A knowledge-attitude-practice (KAP) questionnaire was developed and distributed to Greek parents caring for children who were 5-6 years old, between January and July of the same school year. Results. The sample of the study contained 5312 parents from all geographic areas of Greece. The risk factors of being a father, having low education, having immigrant status, being a single parent, having low income, having <2 or >3 children, living in the islands, and being without experience in recurrent URTIs were significantly associated to inadequate knowledge, inappropriate attitudes, and wrong practices. Conclusions. This study has identified the main groups of parents that should be targeted in future intervention programs.