Table of Contents
ISRN Obstetrics and Gynecology
Volume 2012, Article ID 691486, 9 pages
Research Article

Factors Associated with Vitamin D Deficiency and Inadequacy among Women of Childbearing Age in the United States

1Division of Adult and Community Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
2Division of Behavioral Surveillance, Public Health Surveillance Program Office, Office of Surveillance, Epidemiology and Laboratory Services and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA

Received 29 September 2011; Accepted 13 November 2011

Academic Editors: A. Martin-Hidalgo and C. J. Petry

Copyright © 2012 Guixiang Zhao et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Objective. To examine the prevalence and correlates of vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy among US women of childbearing age. Methods. Data from 1,814 female participants (20–44 y) in the 2003–2006 NHANES were analyzed to estimate the age-adjusted prevalence and prevalence ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for vitamin D deficiency (defined as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] <12.0 ng/mL) and inadequacy (defined as 25(OH)D: 12.0–<20.0 ng/mL). Results. The age-adjusted prevalence was 11.1% (95% CI: 8.8–14.0%) for vitamin D deficiency and 25.7% (95% CI: 22.3–29.5%) for vitamin D inadequacy. Race/ethnicity other than non-Hispanic white and obesity were associated with increased risks, whereas dietary supplement use, milk consumption of ≥1 time/day, and potential sunlight exposure during May-October were associated with decreased risks for both vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy ( 𝑃 < 0 . 0 5 ). Current smoking and having histories of diabetes and cardiovascular disease were also associated with an increased risk for vitamin D deficiency ( 𝑃 < 0 . 0 5 ). Conclusions. Among women of childbearing age, periconceptional intervention programs may focus on multiple risk factors for vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy to ultimately improve their vitamin D nutrition.