Table of Contents
ISRN Vascular Medicine
Volume 2012, Article ID 784073, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/784073
Review Article

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in the Detection and Characterisation of Cardiovascular Disease: Key Studies

1School of Chemistry, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
2Leeds Vascular Institute, Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds LS1 3EX, UK

Received 9 August 2012; Accepted 29 August 2012

Academic Editors: K. Abe and Z. Yang

Copyright © 2012 Warren Yabsley et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. Stocker and J. F. Keaney, “Role of oxidative modifications in atherosclerosis,” Physiological Reviews, vol. 84, no. 4, pp. 1381–1478, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. G. K. Hansson and P. Libby, “The immune response in atherosclerosis: a double-edged sword,” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 6, no. 7, pp. 508–519, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown et al., “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: a report from the American heart association,” Circulation, vol. 121, no. 7, pp. e46–e215, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. M. Lundberg and G. K. Hansson, “Innate immune signals in atherosclerosis,” Clinical Immunology, vol. 134, no. 1, pp. 5–24, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. N. E. Baskind, C. McRae, V. Sharma, and J. Fisher, “Understanding subfertility at a molecular level in the female through the application of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy,” Human Reproduction Update, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 228–241, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. E. Turner, J. A. Brewster, N. A. B. Simpson, J. J. Walker, and J. Fisher, “Aromatic amino acid biomarkers of preeclampsia—a nuclear magnetic resonance investigation,” Hypertension in Pregnancy, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 225–235, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. R. P. Hopton, E. Turner, V. J. Burley, P. C. Turner, and J. Fisher, “Urine metabolite analysis as a function of deoxynivalenol exposure: an NMR-based metabolomics investigation,” Food Additives and Contaminants A, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 255–261, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. E. M. Lenz and I. D. Wilson, “Analytical strategies in metabonomics,” Journal of Proteome Research, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 443–458, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. C. Lindon and J. K. Nicholson, “Spectroscopic and statistical techniques for information recovery in metabonomics and metabolomics,” Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 45–69, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. C. Lindon, E. Holmes, and J. K. Nicholson, “Metabonomics techniques and applications to pharmaceutical research & development,” Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 1075–1088, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. O. Beckonert, H. C. Keun, T. M. D. Ebbels et al., “Metabolic profiling, metabolomic and metabonomic procedures for NMR spectroscopy of urine, plasma, serum and tissue extracts,” Nature protocols, vol. 2, no. 11, pp. 2692–2703, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. O. Beckonert, M. Coen, H. C. Keun et al., “High-resolution magic-angle-spinning NMR spectroscopy for metabolic profiling of intact tissues,” Nature Protocols, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 1019–1032, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. C. Y. Lin, H. F. Wu, R. S. Tjeerdema, and M. R. Viant, “Evaluation of metabolite extraction strategies from tissue samples using NMR metabolomics,” Metabolomics, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 55–67, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. K. Nicholson, J. C. Lindon, and E. Holmes, “‘Metabonomics’ understanding the metabolic responses of living systems to pathophysiological stimuli via multivariate statistical analysis of biological NMR spectroscopic data,” Xenobiotica, vol. 29, no. 11, pp. 1181–1189, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. W. Eisenreich and A. Bacher, “Advances of high-resolution NMR techniques in the structural and metabolic analysis of plant biochemistry,” Phytochemistry, vol. 68, no. 22-24, pp. 2799–2815, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. H. F. Bothwell and J. L. Griffin, “An introduction to biological nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy,” Biological Reviews, vol. 86, no. 2, pp. 493–510, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. Wold, A. Berglund, and N. Kettaneh, “New and old trends in chemometrics. How to deal with the increasing data volumes in R&D&P (research, development and production)—with examples from pharmaceutical research and process modeling,” Journal of Chemometrics, vol. 16, no. 8-10, pp. 377–386, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J. Trygg, E. Holmes, and T. Lundstedt, “Chemometrics in metabonomics,” Journal of Proteome Research, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 469–479, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. S. N. Goonewardena, L. E. Prevette, and A. A. Desai, “Metabolomics and atherosclerosis,” Current Atherosclerosis Reports, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 267–272, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. R. Madsen, T. Lundstedt, and J. Trygg, “Chemometrics in metabolomics—a review in human disease diagnosis,” Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 659, no. 1-2, pp. 23–33, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. C. L. Waterman, C. Kian-Kai, and J. L. Griffin, “Metabolomic strategies to study lipotoxicity in cardiovascular disease,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1801, no. 3, pp. 230–234, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. Paasch and E. Brunner, “Trends in solid-state NMR spectroscopy and their relevance for bioanalytics,” Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, vol. 398, no. 6, pp. 2351–2362, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. H. Koskela, “Use of NMR techniques for toxic organophosphorus compound profiling,” Journal of Chromatography B, vol. 878, no. 17-18, pp. 1365–1381, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. D. Brunzell, M. Davidson, C. D. Furberg et al., “Lipoprotein management in patients with cardiometabolic risk. Consensus conference report from the American Diabetes Association and the American College of Cardiology Foundation,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 51, no. 15, pp. 1512–1524, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. Ala-Korpela, A. Korhonen, J. Keisala et al., “1H NMR-based absolute quantitation of human lipoproteins and their lipid contents directly from plasma,” Journal of Lipid Research, vol. 35, no. 12, pp. 2292–2304, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. D. Otvos, E. J. Jeyarajah, and D. W. Bennett, “Quantification of plasma lipoproteins by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 377–386, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. LipoScience, “LipoScience A Diagnostic Company,” 2010.
  28. M. Ala-Korpela, N. Lankinen, A. Salminen et al., “The inherent accuracy of 1H NMR spectroscopy to quantify plasma lipoproteins is subclass dependent,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 190, no. 2, pp. 352–358, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. V. P. Mäkinen, P. Soininen, C. Forsblom et al., “Diagnosing diabetic nephropathy by 1H NMR metabonomics of serum,” Magnetic Resonance Materials in Physics, Biology and Medicine, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 281–296, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. D. Otvos, E. J. Jeyarajah, and W. C. Cromwell, “Measurement issues related to lipoprotein heterogeneity,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 90, no. 8, pp. 22I–29I, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. van der Graaf, J. Rodenburg, M. N. Vissers et al., “Atherogenic lipoprotein particle size and concentrations and the effect of pravastatin in children with familial hypercholesterolemia,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 152, no. 6, pp. 873–878, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S. Mora, M. Szklo, J. D. Otvos et al., “LDL particle subclasses, LDL particle size, and carotid atherosclerosis in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA),” Atherosclerosis, vol. 192, no. 1, pp. 211–217, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. U. Singh, J. Otvos, A. Dasgupta, J. A. de Lemos, S. Devaraj, and I. Jialal, “High-dose α-tocopherol therapy does not affect HDL subfractions in patients with coronary artery disease on statin therapy,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 525–528, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. B. G. Brown, X. Q. Zhao, A. Chait et al., “Simvastatin and niacin, antioxidant vitamins, or the combination for the prevention of coronary disease,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 345, no. 22, pp. 1583–1592, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. D. A. Duprez, L. H. Kuller, R. Tracy et al., “Lipoprotein particle subclasses, cardiovascular disease and HIV infection,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 207, no. 2, pp. 524–529, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. D. S. Freedman, J. D. Otvos, E. J. Jeyarajah et al., “Sex and age differences in lipoprotein subclasses measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: the framingham study,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 50, no. 7, pp. 1189–1200, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. Masulli, L. Patti, G. Riccardi et al., “Relation among lipoprotein subfractions and carotid atherosclerosis in alaskan eskimos (from the GOCADAN Study),” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 104, no. 11, pp. 1516–1521, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. R. S. Rosenson, J. D. Otvos, and D. S. Freedman, “Relations of lipoprotein subclass levels and low-density lipoprotein size to progression of coronary artery disease in the pravastatin limitation of atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries (PLAC-I) trial,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 90, no. 2, pp. 89–94, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. S. Kathiresan, J. D. Otvos, L. M. Sullivan et al., “Increased small low-density lipoprotein particle number: a prominent feature of the metabolic syndrome in the Framingham Heart Study,” Circulation, vol. 113, no. 1, pp. 20–29, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. S. Y. Ding, X. T. Tigno, and B. C. Hansen, “Nuclear magnetic resonance-determined lipoprotein abnormalities in nonhuman primates with the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Metabolism, vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 838–846, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. A. Festa, K. Williams, A. J. G. Hanley et al., “Nuclear magnetic resonance lipoprotein abnormalities in prediabetic subjects in the insulin resistance atherosclerosis study,” Circulation, vol. 111, no. 25, pp. 3465–3472, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. S. Mora, J. D. Otvos, N. Rifai, R. S. Rosenson, J. E. Buring, and P. M. Ridker, “Lipoprotein particle profiles by nuclear magnetic resonance compared with standard lipids and apolipoproteins in predicting incident cardiovascular disease in women,” Circulation, vol. 119, no. 7, pp. 931–939, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. J. T. Brindle, H. Antti, E. Holmes et al., “Rapid and noninvasive diagnosis of the presence and severity of coronary heart disease using 1H-NMR-based metabonomics,” Nature Medicine, vol. 8, no. 12, pp. 1439–1444, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. H. L. Kirschenlohr, J. L. Griffin, S. C. Clarke et al., “Proton NMR analysis of plasma is a weak predictor of coronary artery disease,” Nature Medicine, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 705–710, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. P. Bernini, I. Bertini, C. Luchinat, L. Tenori, and A. Tognaccini, “The cardiovascular risk of healthy individuals studied by NMR metabonomics of plasma samples,” Journal of Proteome Research, vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 4983–4992, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. M. Mayr, S. Yusuf, G. Weir et al., “Combined metabolomic and proteomic analysis of human atrial fibrillation,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 585–594, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. J. Teul, F. J. Rupérez, A. Garcia et al., “Improving metabolite knowledge in stable atherosclerosis patients by association and correlation of GC-MS and 1H NMR fingerprints,” Journal of Proteome Research, vol. 8, no. 12, pp. 5580–5589, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. I. Barba, G. de León, E. Martín et al., “Nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics predicts exercise-induced ischemia in patients with suspected coronary artery disease,” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 27–32, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. B. Chen, X. Ren, T. Neville et al., “Apolipoprotein AI tertiary structures determine stability and phospholipid-binding activity of discoidal high-density lipoprotein particles of different sizes,” Protein Science, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 921–935, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. R. M. Epand, A. D. Bain, B. G. Sayer, D. Bach, and E. Wachtel, “Properties of mixtures of cholesterol with phosphatidylcholine or with phosphatidylserine studied by 13C magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance,” Biophysical Journal, vol. 83, no. 4, pp. 2053–2063, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. K. Seppänen, P. Soininen, J. T. Salonen, S. Lötjönen, and R. Laatikainen, “Does mercury promote lipid peroxidation? An in vitro study concerning mercury, copper, and iron in peroxidation of low-density lipoprotein,” Biological Trace Element Research, vol. 101, no. 2, pp. 117–132, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. Y. Yang, G. Bai, X. Zhang, C. Ye, and M. Liu, “1H NMR spectroscopic evidence of interaction between ibuprofen and lipoproteins in human blood plasma,” Analytical Biochemistry, vol. 324, no. 2, pp. 292–297, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. D. H. Wu, A. D. Chen, and C. S. Johnson, “An improved diffusion-ordered spectroscopy experiment incorporating bipolar-gradient pulses,” Journal of Magnetic Resonance A, vol. 115, no. 2, pp. 260–264, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus