Table of Contents
ISRN Cell Biology
Volume 2012, Article ID 787934, 36 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/787934
Review Article

Impact of Salmonella enterica Type III Secretion System Effectors on the Eukaryotic Host Cell

Departamento de Genética, Facultad de Biología, Universidad de Sevilla, Avenida Reina Mercedes 6, 41012 Sevilla, Spain

Received 4 November 2012; Accepted 22 November 2012

Academic Editors: R. Botelho, G. C. Chen, N. Kataoka, and C. M. Wells

Copyright © 2012 Francisco Ramos-Morales. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Type III secretion systems are molecular machines used by many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens to inject proteins, known as effectors, directly into eukaryotic host cells. These proteins manipulate host signal transduction pathways and cellular processes to the pathogen’s advantage. Salmonella enterica possesses two virulence-related type III secretion systems that deliver more than forty effectors. This paper reviews our current knowledge about the functions, biochemical activities, host targets, and impact on host cells of these effectors. First, the concerted action of effectors at the cellular level in relevant aspects of the interaction between Salmonella and its hosts is analyzed. Then, particular issues that will drive research in the field in the near future are discussed. Finally, detailed information about each individual effector is provided.