Table of Contents
ISRN Obesity
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 816846, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/816846
Research Article

Metabolic Syndrome in Canadian Adults and Adolescents: Prevalence and Associated Dietary Intake

Division of Nutrition and Dietetics, College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, 110 Science Place, Thorvaldsen Building, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 5C9

Received 22 October 2012; Accepted 8 November 2012

Academic Editors: O. M. S. Amancio, D. Cota, and S. Weitzman

Copyright © 2012 Solmaz Setayeshgar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. M. Grundy, “Metabolic syndrome pandemic,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 629–636, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. E. Brien and P. T. Katzmarzyk, “Physical activity and the metabolic syndrome in Canada,” Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 40–47, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. A. J. Cameron, D. J. Magliano, P. Z. Zimmet et al., “The metabolic syndrome as a tool for predicting future diabetes: the AusDiab study,” Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 264, no. 2, pp. 177–186, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. K. G. M. M. Alberti, P. Zimmet, and J. Shaw, “Metabolic syndrome—a new world-wide definition. A consensus statement from the International Diabetes Federation,” Diabetic Medicine, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 469–480, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. N. D. Riediger and I. Clara, “Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the Canadian adult population,” Canadian Medical Association Journal, vol. 183, no. 15, pp. E1127–E1134, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  6. P. L. Lutsey, L. M. Steffen, and J. Stevens, “Dietary intake and the development of the metabolic syndrome: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study,” Circulation, vol. 117, no. 6, pp. 754–761, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. L. E. C. Van Meijl, R. Vrolix, and R. P. Mensink, “Dairy product consumption and the metabolic syndrome,” Nutrition Research Reviews, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 148–157, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. N. M. McKeown, J. B. Meigs, S. Liu, E. Saltzman, P. W. F. Wilson, and P. F. Jacques, “Carbohydrate nutrition, insulin resistance, and the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the framingham offspring cohort,” Diabetes Care, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 538–546, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. V. S. Malik, B. M. Popkin, G. A. Bray, J. P. Després, W. C. Willett, and F. B. Hu, “Sugar-sweetened beverages and risk of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis,” Diabetes Care, vol. 33, no. 11, pp. 2477–2483, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. D. R. Brenner, P. Arora, B. Garcia-Bailo et al., “The relationship between inflammation, metabolic syndrome and markers of cardiovascular disease among Canadian adults,” Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism, vol. S2, article 003, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  11. J. P. Després, I. Lemieux, J. Bergeron et al., “Abdominal Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome: contribution to global cardiometabolic risk,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 1039–1049, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. N. Fitzgerald, G. Damio, S. Segura-Pérez, and R. Pérez-Escamilla, “Nutrition knowledge, food label use, and food intake patterns among latinas with and without type 2 diabetes,” Journal of the American Dietetic Association, vol. 108, no. 6, pp. 960–967, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. Statistics Canada, retrieved from, http://www.statcan.gc.ca/about-apercu/about-apropos-eng.htm.
  14. S. Giroux, “Canadian Health Measures Survey: sampling strategy overview,” Health Report, vol. 18, no. 82-003-S, pp. 31–36, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. K. G. Alberti, R. H. Eckel, S. M. Grundy et al., “Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome,” Circulation, vol. 120, pp. 1640–1645, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  16. C. J. Jolliffe and I. Janssen, “Development of age-specific adolescent metabolic syndrome criteria that are linked to the adult treatment panel III and international diabetes federation criteria,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 49, no. 8, pp. 891–898, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. Canadian Health measures survey, cycle 1, 2007—2009, household questionnaire, http://www23.statcan.gc.ca/imdb-bmdi/pub/instrument/5071_Q1_V1-eng.pdf.
  18. National Population Health Survey—Household Component—Longitudinal (NPHS), http://www23.statcan.gc.ca/imdb/p2SV.pl?Function=getSurvey&SDDS=3225&lang=en&db=imdb&adm=8&dis=2.
  19. The International Expert Committee, “International expert committee report on the role of the A1C assay in the diagnosis of diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 1327–1334, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. E. S. Ford, W. H. Giles, and W. H. Dietz, “Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among US adults: findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 287, no. 3, pp. 356–359, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. E. S. Ford, H. W. Kohl, A. H. Mokdad, and U. A. Ajani, “Sedentary behavior, physical activity, and the metabolic syndrome among U.S. adults,” Obesity Research, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 608–614, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. C. L. Ogden, M. D. Carroll, L. R. Curtin, M. M. Lamb, and K. M. Flegal, “Prevalence of high body mass index in US children and adolescents, 2007-2008,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 303, no. 3, pp. 242–249, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. Public Health Agency of Canada, Obesity in Canada, snapshot June 2011, http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/hp-ps/hl-mvs/oic-oac/index-eng.php.
  24. E. S. Ford, W. H. Giles, and A. H. Mokdad, “Increasing prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among U.S. adults,” Diabetes Care, vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 2444–2449, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. Pascot, I. Lemieux, D. Prud'homme et al., “Reduced HDL particle size as an additional feature of the atherogenic dyslipidemia of abdominal obesity,” Journal of Lipid Research, vol. 42, no. 12, pp. 2007–2014, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. S. Sam, S. Haffner, M. H. Davidson et al., “Relationship of abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue with lipoprotein particle number and size in type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 2022–2027, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. D. J. Nieves, M. Cnop, B. Retzlaff et al., “The atherogenic lipoprotein profile associated with obesity and insulin resistance is largely attributable to intra-abdominal fat,” Diabetes, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 172–179, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. F. Ascaso, P. Romerob, J. T. Reala, R. I. Lorentea, J. Martinez-Vallsa, and R. Carmena, “Abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome in a southern European population,” European Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 101–106, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  29. G. E. Duncan, S. M. Li, and X. H. Zhou, “Prevalence and trends of a metabolic syndrome phenotype among U.S. adolescents, 1999-2000,” Diabetes Care, vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 2438–2443, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. A. Morrison, P. M. Laskarzewski, and J. L. Rauh, “Lipids, lipoproteins, and sexual maturation during adolescence: the Princeton Maturation Study,” Metabolism, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 641–649, 1979. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. K. V. K. Porkka, J. S. A. Viikari, and H. K. Akerblom, “Tracking of serum HDL-cholesterol and other lipids in children and adolescents: the cardiovascular risk in young finns study,” Preventive Medicine, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 713–724, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. P. C. Elwood, D. I. Givens, A. D. Beswick, A. M. Fehily, J. E. Pickering, and J. Gallacher, “The survival advantage of milk and dairy consumption: an overview of evidence from cohort studies of vascular diseases, diabetes and cancer,” Journal of the American College of Nutrition, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 723S–734S, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. A. Beydoun, T. L. Gary, B. H. Caballero, R. S. Lawrence, L. J. Cheskin, and Y. Wang, “Ethnic differences in dairy and related nutrient consumption among US adults and their association with obesity, central obesity, and the metabolic syndrome,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 87, no. 6, pp. 1914–1925, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. U. Nöthlings, H. Boeing, G. Maskarinec et al., “Food intake of individuals with and without diabetes across different countries and ethnic groups,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 65, no. 5, pp. 635–641, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. G. Riccardi, R. Giacco, and A. A. Rivellese, “Dietary fat, insulin sensitivity and the metabolic syndrome,” Clinical Nutrition, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 447–456, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. Canadian Diabetes Association, “2008 clinical practice guidelines for the prevention and management of diabetes in Canada,” Canadian Journal of Diabetes, vol. 32, supplement 1, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  37. R. Dhingra, L. Sullivan, P. F. Jacques et al., “Soft Drink Consumption and Risk of Developing Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and the Metabolic Syndrome in Middle-Aged Adults in the Community,” Circulation, vol. 116, no. 5, pp. 480–488, 2007. View at Google Scholar