Table of Contents
ISRN Cardiology
Volume 2012, Article ID 912672, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/912672
Clinical Study

Effect of Acute Mental Stress on Heart Rate and QT Variability in Postmyocardial Infarction Patients

1Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Molecolare, Azienda Ospedaliera S. Andrea, “Sapienza” Università degli Studi di Roma, 00185 Rome, Italy
2Dipartimento di Scienze Cardiovascolari, Respiratorie, Nefrologiche e Geriatriche, Prima Clinica Medica, Policlinico Umberto I, “Sapienza” Università degli Studi di Roma, 00185 Rome, Italy

Received 20 April 2012; Accepted 16 May 2012

Academic Editors: K. Aalto-Setala and K. Nakamura

Copyright © 2012 Damiano Magrì et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. C. Ziegelstein, “Acute emotional stress and cardiac arrhythmias,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 298, no. 3, pp. 324–329, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. E. Dimsdale, “Psychological stress and cardiovascular disease,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 51, no. 13, pp. 1237–1246, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. Leor, W. K. Poole, and R. A. Kloner, “Sudden cardiac death triggered by an earthquake,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 334, no. 7, pp. 413–419, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. R. A. Kloner, J. Leor, W. K. Poole, and R. Perritt, “Population-based analysis of the effect of the Northridge Earthquake on cardiac death in Los Angeles County, California,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 1174–1180, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. K. Kario and T. Ohashi, “Increased coronary heart disease mortality after the Hanshin-Awaji earthquake among the older community on Awaji Island,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 610–613, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. S. Chi, W. K. Poole, S. C. Kandefer, and R. A. Kloner, “Cardiovascular mortality in New York City after September 11, 2001,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 92, no. 7, pp. 857–861, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. S. Chi, M. T. Speakman, W. K. Poole, S. C. Kandefer, and R. A. Kloner, “Hospital admissions for cardiac events in New York City after September 11, 2001,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 92, no. 1, pp. 61–63, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. S. Steinberg, A. Arshad, M. Kowalski et al., “An Increased incidence of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias in implantable defibrillator patients after the World Trade Center attack,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 1261–1264, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. O. L. Shedd, S. F. Sears Jr., J. L. Harvill et al., “The World Trade Center attack: increased frequency of defibrillator shocks for ventricular arrhythmias in patients living remotely from New York City,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 1265–1267, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. D. Carroll, S. Ebrahim, K. Tilling, J. Macleod, and G. Davey Smith, “Admissions for myocardial infarction and World Cup football: database survey,” British Medical Journal, vol. 325, no. 7378, pp. 1439–1442, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. U. Wilbert-Lampen, D. Leistner, S. Greven et al., “Cardiovascular events during World Cup Soccer,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 358, no. 5, pp. 475–483, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. E. Muller, M. A. Mittleman, M. Maclure, J. B. Sherwood, and G. H. Toller, “Triggering myocardial infarction by sexual activity: low absolute risk and prevention by regular physical exertion,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 275, no. 18, pp. 1405–1409, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. Möller, A. Ahlbom, J. Hulting et al., “Sexual activity as a trigger of myocardial infarction. A case-crossover analysis in the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Programme (SHEEP),” Heart, vol. 86, no. 4, pp. 387–390, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. A. Mittleman, M. Maclure, J. B. Sherwood et al., “Triggering of acute myocardial infarction onset by episodes of anger,” Circulation, vol. 92, no. 7, pp. 1720–1725, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. Möller, J. Hallqvist, F. Diderichsen, T. Theorell, C. Reuterwall, and A. Ahlbom, “Do episodes of anger trigger myocardial infarction? A case-crossover analysis in the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program (SHEEP),” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 61, no. 6, pp. 842–849, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. C. W. Y. Appels and J. H. Bolk, “Sudden death after emotional stress: a case history and literature review,” European Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 359–361, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. N. Willich, M. Maclure, M. Mittleman, H. R. Arntz, and J. E. Muller, “Sudden cardiac death: support for a role of triggering in causation,” Circulation, vol. 87, no. 5, pp. 1442–1450, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. R. Lampert, V. Shusterman, M. M. Burg et al., “Effects of psychologic stress on repolarization and relationship to autonomic and hemodynamic factors,” Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 372–377, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. W. J. Kop, D. S. Krantz, B. D. Nearing et al., “Effects of acute mental stress and exercise on T-wave alternans in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators and controls,” Circulation, vol. 109, no. 15, pp. 1864–1869, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. R. Lampert, V. Shusterman, M. Burg et al., “Anger-induced T-wave alternans predicts future ventricular arrhythmias in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 53, no. 9, pp. 774–778, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. R. D. Berger, E. K. Kasper, K. L. Baughman, E. Marban, H. Calkins, and G. F. Tomaselli, “Beat-to-beat QT interval variability: novel evidence for repolarization lability in ischemic and nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy,” Circulation, vol. 96, no. 5, pp. 1557–1565, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. W. L. Atiga, H. Calkins, J. H. Lawrence, G. F. Tomaselli, J. M. Smith, and R. D. Berger, “Beat-to-beat repolarization lability identifies patients at risk for sudden cardiac death,” Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology, vol. 9, no. 9, pp. 899–908, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. C. Haigney, W. Zareba, P. J. Gentlesk et al., “QT interval variability and spontaneous ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation in the Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial (MADUT) II patients,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 44, no. 7, pp. 1481–1487, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. G. Piccirillo, D. Magrì, S. Matera et al., “QT variability strongly predicts sudden cardiac death in asymptomatic subjects with mild or moderate left ventricular systolic dysfunction: a prospective study,” European Heart Journal, vol. 28, no. 11, pp. 1344–1350, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. G. Piccirillo, D. Magrì, M. Ogawa et al., “Autonomic nervous system activity measured directly and QT interval variability in normal and pacing-induced tachycardia heart failure dogs,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 54, no. 9, pp. 840–850, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. Ogawa, S. Zhou, A. Y. Tan et al., “Left stellate ganglion and vagal nerve activity and cardiac arrhythmias in ambulatory dogs with pacing-induced congestive heart failure,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 335–343, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. G. Piccirillo, D. Magrì, S. Matera, and V. Marigliano, “Emotions that afflict the heart: influence of the autonomic nervous system on temporal dispersion of myocardial repolarization,” Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 185–187, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. G. Piccirillo, P. Rossi, and D. Magrì, “The QT variability index: a multidimensional approach to understanding cardiovascular disease,” Cardiology, vol. 118, no. 1, pp. 42–44, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology, “Heart rate variability. Standard of measurements, physiological interpretation and clinical use,” Circulation, vol. 93, pp. 1043–1065, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. G. Piccirillo, M. Nocco, A. Moisè et al., “Influence of vitamin C on baroreflex sensitivity in chronic heart failure,” Hypertension, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 1240–1245, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. G. Piccirillo, M. Cacciafesta, E. Viola et al., “Influence of aging on cardiac baroreflex sensitivity determined non-invasively by power spectral analysis,” Clinical Science, vol. 100, no. 3, pp. 267–274, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. G. Piccirillo, D. Magrì, C. Naso et al., “Factors influencing heart rate variability power spectral analysis during controlled breathing in patients with chronic heart failure or hypertension and in healthy normotensive subjects,” Clinical Science, vol. 107, no. 2, pp. 183–190, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. D. Magrì, G. Piccirillo, and E. Bucci, “Increased temporal dispersion of myocardial repolarization in myotonic dystrophy type 1. Beyond the cardiac conduction system,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 156, pp. 259–264, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. D. Magrì, S. Sciomer, F. Fedele et al., “Increased QT variability in young asymptomatic patients with β-thalassemia major,” European Journal of Haematology, vol. 79, no. 4, pp. 322–329, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. G. Piccirillo, M. Ogawa, J. Song et al., “Power spectral analysis of heart rate variability and autonomic nervous system activity measured directly in healthy dogs and dogs with tachycardia-induced heart failure,” Heart Rhythm, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 546–552, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. S. Guzzetti, M. T. La Rovere, G. D. Pinna et al., “Different spectral components of 24h heart rate variability are related to different modes of death in chronic heart failure,” European Heart Journal, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 357–362, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. T. La Rovere, G. D. Pinna, R. Maestri et al., “Short-term heart rate variability strongly predicts sudden cadiac death in chronic heart failure patients,” Circulation, vol. 107, no. 4, pp. 565–570, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. G. Piccirillo, D. Magrì, S. Di Carlo et al., “Influence of cardiac-resynchronization therapy on heart rate and blood pressure variability: 1-year follow-up,” European Journal of Heart Failure, vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 716–722, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. G. Piccirillo, R. L. Luparini, V. Celli et al., “Effects of carvedilol on heart rate and blood pressure variability in subjects with chronic heart failure,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 86, no. 12, pp. 1392–1395, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. G. Piccirillo, R. Quaglione, M. Nocco et al., “Effects of long-term beta-blocker (metoprolol or carvedilol) therapy on QT variability in subjects with chronic heart failure secondary to ischemic cardiomyopathy,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 90, no. 10, pp. 1113–1117, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. G. Piccirillo, M. Magnanti, S. Matera et al., “Age and QT variability index during free breathing, controlled breathing and tilt in patients with chronic heart failure and healthy control subjects,” Translational Research, vol. 148, no. 2, pp. 72–78, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. Y. Tsuji, S. Zicha, X. Y. Qi, I. Kodama, and S. Nattel, “Potassium channel subunit remodeling in rabbits exposed to long-term bradycardia or tachycardia: discrete arrhythmogenic consequences related to differential delayed-rectifier changes,” Circulation, vol. 113, no. 3, pp. 345–355, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. R. Lampert, T. Joska, M. M. Burg, W. P. Batsford, C. A. McPherson, and D. Jain, “Emotional and physical precipitants of ventricular arrhythmia,” Circulation, vol. 106, no. 14, pp. 1800–1805, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. C. S. Kohn, R. J. Petrucci, C. Baessler, D. M. Soto, and C. Movsowitz, “The effect of psychological intervention on patients' long-term adjustment to the ICD: a prospective study,” Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 450–456, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. S. S. Pedersen, K. C. van den Broek, and S. F. Sears, “Psychological intervention following implantation of an implantable defibrillator: a review and future recommendations,” Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology, vol. 30, no. 12, pp. 1546–1554, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus