Table of Contents
ISRN Gastroenterology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 960413, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/960413
Review Article

Improving Hepatitis B Vaccine Efficacy in End-Stage Renal Diseases Patients and Role of Adjuvants

1Liver and Gastroenterology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
2Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran

Received 18 June 2012; Accepted 1 August 2012

Academic Editors: G. Barbaro, A. Nakajima, W. Vogel, and C. Y. Yeung

Copyright © 2012 Mohammad Hossein Somi and Babak Hajipour. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious global health problem.The prevalence of viral hepatitis is higher in dialysis patients than in the general population because of the opportunity for exposure during the dialysis procedure. Immunization is the most effective way to prevent transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hence the development of acute or chronic hepatitis B. It is well established that patients with end-stage renal disease including dialysis-dependent patients, have an impaired immune response to hepatitis B vaccine. End stage renal diseases (ESRD) patients have lower seroconversion rates compared with the subjects with intact renal function. Moreover, even after the completion of vaccination schedule anti-hepatitis B (anti-HBs) titers of responder dialysis, patients are low and decline logarithmically with time. The impaired efficacy of HBV vaccine in patients with ESRD has been attributed to numerous factors such as immune compromise because of uremia and some other factors. One approach to improve the immunogenicity of existing HBV vaccines is adjuvantation, and it's very important to find more effective adjutants for improving HBV vaccine efficacy. In this paper we have a brief review on recently known new ways for improving HBV vaccine efficacy.