Table of Contents
ISRN Pediatrics
Volume 2012, Article ID 975685, 11 pages
Review Article

Diabetic and Metabolic Programming: Mechanisms Altering the Intrauterine Milieu

1Medical Clinic and Policlinic IV, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, 80336 Munich, Germany
2Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, University Hospital of Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, CH-8091 Zurich, Switzerland
3Institute for Automation and Systems Engineering, Ilmenau University of Technology, 98684 Ilmenau, Germany

Received 22 May 2012; Accepted 15 August 2012

Academic Editors: N. A. Shorter and K. Tokiwa

Copyright © 2012 Claudia Eberle and Christoph Ament. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A wealth of epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies have been linked to poor intrauterine conditions as well as metabolic and associated cardiovascular changes postnatal. These are novel perspectives connecting the altered intrauterine milieu to a rising number of metabolic diseases, such as diabetes, obesity, and hypercholesterolemia as well as the Metabolic Syndrome (Met S). Moreover, metabolic associated atherosclerotic diseases are connected to perigestational maternal health. The “Thrifty Phenotype Hypothesis” introduced cross-generational links between poor conditions during gestation and metabolic as well as cardiovascular alterations postnatal. Still, mechanisms altering the intrauterine milieu causing metabolic and associated atherosclerotic diseases are currently poorly understood. This paper will give novel insights in fundamental concepts connected to specific molecular mechanisms “programming” diabetes and associated metabolic as well as cardiovascular diseases.