Table of Contents
ISRN Geophysics
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 102450, 11 pages
Research Article

Subsurface and Petrophysical Studies of Shaly-Sand Reservoir Targets in Apete Field, Niger Delta

1Department of Geology, Institute of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Freiburg, Albertstraße 23b, 79104 Freiburg, Germany
2Department of Geology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
3School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, Greater Manchester M13 9PL, UK

Received 29 June 2013; Accepted 7 August 2013

Academic Editors: Y.-J. Chuo and A. Tzanis

Copyright © 2013 P. A. Alao et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Conventional departures from Archie conditions for petrophysical attribute delineation include shaliness, fresh formation waters, thin-bed reservoirs, and combinations of these cases. If these departures are unrecognized, water saturation can be overestimated, and this can result in loss of opportunity. Wireline logs of four (4) wells from Apete field were studied to delineate petrophysical attributes of shaly-sand reservoirs in the field. Shale volume and porosities were calculated, water saturations were determined by the dual water model, and net pay was estimated using field-specific pay criteria. Ten sand units within the Agbada formation penetrated by the wells were delineated and correlated and their continuity was observed across the studied wells. The reservoirs had high volume of shale (Vcl), high hydrocarbon saturation, low water saturation, and good effective porosity ranging 12.50–46.90%, 54.00–98.39%, 1.61–46.0%, and 10.40–26.80%, respectively. The pay zones are relatively inhomogeneous reservoirs as revealed from the buckle’s plot except in Apete 05. The direction of deposition of the sands was thus inferred to be east west. Empirical relationships apply with variable levels of accuracy with observation of the porosity-depth, water saturation-depth, and water saturation-porosity trends. Core data is recommended for better characterization of these reservoirs.