Table 1: Disorders and health risks due to high protein/high meat intake (above 0.8 g protein/kg body weight/day) in adults.


Bone and calcium homeostasis
111 healthy adultsHypercalciuria[8]
26 healthy adult males(a) Hypercalciuria, (b) negative calcium balance[9]
316 healthy adult females(a) Hypercalciuria, (b) increased bone resorption[10]
410 healthy adults(a) Decreased estimated calcium balance, (b) increased risk for bone loss[11]
5 85,900 adult femalesIncreased risk of forearm fracture[12]
64 healthy adults and 4 patients with nephrolithiasis(a) Hypercalciuria, (b) increased intestinal absorption of calcium[13]
79 healthy adult malesHypercalciuria[14]
86 healthy adult malesHypercalciuria[15]
915 healthy adultsHypercalciuria[16]
106 healthy adult males(a) Hypercalciuria, (b) the consumption of high calcium diets is unlikely to prevent the negative calcium balance and probable bone loss induced by the consumption of high protein diets[17]
118 healthy adult malesHypercalciuria[18]
128 healthy adult malesHypercalciuria[19]
131035 adult femalesA decrease in vegetable protein intake and an increase in animal protein intake increased bone loss and the risk of hip fracture[20]

Renal function
148 healthy adults with a history of renal stones(a) Hyperuricosuria, (b) lower urine pH
(c) Increased risk of forming crystals or stones in the urine
915 healthy adults(a) Hyperuricosuria, (b) increased risk for uric acid stones[16]
410 healthy adults(a) Increased acid load to the kidney, (b) increased risk for stone formation[11]
151624 adult femalesAccelerated renal function decline in women with mild renal insufficiency[22]
166 healthy adult malesIncreased overall relative probability of forming stones[23]
118 healthy adult males(a) Hyperuricosuria, (b) decreased ability of urines to inhibit the agglomeration of calcium oxalate crystals[18]
128 healthy adult males(a) Ιncreased glomerular filtration rate, (b) decreased fractional renal tubular reabsorption of calcium and urinary sodium[19]

Cancer risk
1747,949 adult malesElevated risk of colon cancer was associated with high intake of red meat[24]
1888,751 adult femalesHigh intake of red meat increases the risk of colon cancer[25]
1918,139 adultsMeat intake positively associated with cancer risk (stomach, colon, rectal, pancreatic, bladder, breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers)[26]

Liver function
202 healthy adult males on high protein supplements(a) Elevations in transaminases, (b) hyperalbuminemia[27]

Coronary blood flow
2136 adultsPrecipitated progression of coronary artery disease through increases in lipid deposition and inflammatory and coagulation pathways[28]