Table of Contents
ISRN Pediatrics
Volume 2013, Article ID 140213, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/140213
Clinical Study

Heart Rate and Arterial Pressure Changes during Whole-Body Deep Hypothermia

1NICU, Fondazione IRCCS Cà Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Della Commenda 12, 20122 Milan, Italy
2NICU, Medical Surgical Feto-Neonatal Department, “A. Meyer” University Children’s Hospital, Viale G. Pieraccini, 24, 50139 Florence, Italy
3Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, “Carlo Poma” Hospital, Mantova, Italy

Received 31 January 2013; Accepted 18 March 2013

Academic Editors: A. Maheshwari and B. Vasarhelyi

Copyright © 2013 Giacomo Cavallaro et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. J. Kurinczuk, M. White-Koning, and N. Badawi, “Epidemiology of neonatal encephalopathy and hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy,” Early Human Development, vol. 86, no. 6, pp. 329–338, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. M. Perlman, “Summary proceedings from the neurology group on hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy,” Pediatrics, vol. 117, no. 3, pp. S28–S33, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. P. D. Gluckman, J. S. Wyatt, D. Azzopardi et al., “Selective head cooling with mild systemic hypothermia after neonatal encephalopathy: multicentre randomised trial,” The Lancet, vol. 365, no. 9460, pp. 663–670, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. S. Shankaran, A. R. Laptook, R. A. Ehrenkranz et al., “Whole-body hypothermia for neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 353, no. 15, pp. 1574–1584, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. D. V. Azzopardi, B. Strohm, A. D. Edwards et al., “Moderate hypothermia to treat perinatal asphyxial encephalopathy,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 361, no. 14, pp. 1349–1358, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. W. M. Parkins, J. M. Jensen, and H. M. Vars, “Brain cooling in the prevention of brain damage during periods of circulatory occlusion in dogs,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 140, no. 3, pp. 284–289, 1954. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. Jacobs, R. Hunt, W. Tarnow-Mordi, T. Inder, and P. Davis, “Cooling for newborns with hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 4, p. CD003311, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. P. S. Shah, “Hypothermia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials,” Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 238–246, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. A. D. Edwards, P. Brocklehurst, A. J. Gunn et al., “Neurological outcomes at 18 months of age after moderate hypothermia for perinatal hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy: synthesis and meta-analysis of trial data,” British Medical Journal, vol. 340, p. c363, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. R. E. Hoesch and R. G. Geocadin, “Therapeutic hypothermia for global and focal ischemic brain injury—a cool way to improve neurologic outcomes,” Neurologist, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 331–342, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. K. H. Polderman, “Application of therapeutic hypothermia in the ICU: opportunities and pitfalls of a promising treatment modality. Part 1: indications and evidence,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 556–575, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. K. H. Polderman, “Application of therapeutic hypothermia in the intensive care unit: opportunities and pitfalls of a promising treatment modality. Part 2: practical aspects and side effects,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 757–769, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. D. J. Eicher, C. L. Wagner, L. P. Katikaneni et al., “Moderate hypothermia in neonatal encephalopathy: efficacy outcomes,” Pediatric Neurology, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 11–17, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. Shankaran, A. Laptook, L. L. Wright et al., “Whole-body hypothermia for neonatal encephalopathy: animal observations as a basis for a randomized, controlled pilot study in term infants,” Pediatrics, vol. 110, no. 2, pp. 377–385, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. J. Gunn and M. Battin, “Hypothermic centralization: new use for old knowledge?” Pediatrics, vol. 106, no. 1, pp. 133–134, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. G. Compagnoni, C. Bottura, G. Cavallaro, G. Cristofori, G. Lista, and F. Mosca, “Safety of deep hypothermia in treating neonatal asphyxia,” Neonatology, vol. 93, no. 4, pp. 230–235, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. G. Cavallaro, L. Filippi, G. Cristofori et al., “Does pulmonary function change during whole-body deep hypothermia?” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 96, no. 5, pp. F374–F377, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. L. Filippi, G. La Marca, P. Fiorini et al., “Topiramate concentrations in neonates treated with prolonged whole body hypothermia for hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy,” Epilepsia, vol. 50, no. 11, pp. 2355–2361, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. L. Filippi, C. Poggi, G. La Marca et al., “Oral topiramate in neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy treated with hypothermia: a safety study,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 157, no. 3, pp. 361–366, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. J. Ree, “Electrocardiographic changes in accidental hypothermia,” British Heart Journal, vol. 26, pp. 566–571, 1964. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. M. Perlman, “Systemic abnormalities in term infants following perinatal asphyxia: relevance to long-term neurologic outcome,” Clinics in Perinatology, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 475–484, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. D. L. Dudgeon, P. A. Randall, and J. G. McAfee, “Mild hypothermia: its effect on cardiac output and regional perfusion in the neonatal piglet,” Journal of Pediatric Surgery, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 805–810, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. P. S. Greene, D. E. Cameron, M. L. Mohlala, J. M. Dinatale, and T. J. Gardner, “Systolic and diastolic left ventricular dysfunction due to mild hypothermia,” Circulation, vol. 80, no. 5, pp. 44–48, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. C. W. Hoedemaekers, M. Ezzahti, A. Gerritsen, and J. G. van der Hoeven, “Comparison of cooling methods to induce and maintain normo- and hypothermia in intensive care unit patients: a prospective intervention study,” Critical Care, vol. 11, p. R91, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. Thoresen and A. Whitelaw, “Cardiovascular changes during mild therapeutic hypothermia and rewarming in infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy,” Pediatrics, vol. 106, no. 1, pp. 92–99, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. R. E. Lasky, N. A. Parikh, A. L. Williams, N. S. Padhye, and S. Shankaran, “Changes in the PQRST intervals and heart rate variability associated with rewarming in two newborns undergoing hypothermia therapy,” Neonatology, vol. 96, no. 2, pp. 93–95, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. T. R. Gunn, N. J. Wilson, S. Aftimos, and A. J. Gunn, “Brain hypothermia and QT interval,” Pediatrics, vol. 103, no. 5, p. 1079, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. R. Thompson, J. Rich, F. Chmelik, and W. Nelson, “Evolutionary changes in the electrocardiogram of severe progressive hypothermia,” Journal of Electrocardiology, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 67–70, 1977. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. Okada, “The cardiac rhythm in accidental hypothermia,” Journal of Electrocardiology, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 123–128, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. D. Emslie-Smith, “Changes in the electrocardiogram during preoperative hypothermia in man,” Australasian annals of medicine, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 62–67, 1956. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. M. R. Battin, M. Thoresen, E. Robinson, R. A. Polin, A. D. Edwards, and A. J. Gunn, “Does head cooling with mild systemic hypothermia affect requirement for blood pressure support?” Pediatrics, vol. 123, no. 3, pp. 1031–1036, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. B. Chernow, C. R. Lake, and A. Zaritsky, “Sympathetic nervous system “switch off” with severe hypothermia,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 677–680, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. P. Shah, S. Riphagen, J. Beyene, and M. Perlman, “Multiorgan dysfunction in infants with post-asphyxial hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy,” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 89, no. 2, pp. F152–F155, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. P. B. Tsivyan and A. D. Vasenina, “Left ventricular systolic and diastolic function in term neonates after mild perinatal asphyxia,” European Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 105–110, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. V. Weinrauch, P. Safar, S. Tisherman, K. Kuboyama, A. Radovsky, and R. C. Koehler, “Beneficial effect of mild hypothermia and detrimental effect of deep hypothermia after cardiac arrest in dogs,” Stroke, vol. 23, no. 10, pp. 1454–1462, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. R. A. Primhak, R. Jedeikin, and G. Ellis, “Myocardial ischaemia in aphyxia neonatorum. Electrocardiographic, enzymatic and histological correlations,” Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica, vol. 74, no. 4, pp. 595–600, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. P. Safar, F. Xiao, A. Radovsky et al., “Improved cerebral resuscitation from cardiac arrest in dogs with mild hypothermia plus blood flow promotion,” Stroke, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 105–113, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. C. M. Gebauer, M. Knuepfer, E. Robel-Tillig, F. Pulzer, and C. Vogtmann, “Hemodynamics among neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy during whole-body hypothermia and passive rewarming,” Pediatrics, vol. 117, no. 3, pp. 843–850, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. S. Sarkar and J. D. Barks, “Systemic complications and hypothermia,” Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 270–275, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus