Table of Contents
ISRN Epidemiology
Volume 2013, Article ID 145031, 8 pages
Research Article

Distribution and Bionomic of Sand Flies in Five Ecologically Different Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Foci in Morocco

1Laboratoire d’Entomologie Médicale, Institut National d’Hygiène, 27 Avenue Ibn Batouta, Agdal, Rabat 10090, Morocco
2Service de Lutte Antivectorielle, Direction de l’Epidémiologie et de Lutte contre les Maladies, Agdal, Rabat 10080, Morocco

Received 30 April 2012; Accepted 16 July 2012

Academic Editors: J. M. Ramon and C. Szmaragd

Copyright © 2013 Chafika Faraj et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Cutaneous and visceral leishmaniases are endemic in Morocco. Their geographical distribution is well known. It has been related to bioclimatic factors. However, in 2008, two new cutaneous leishmaniasis foci appeared out of the known risk areas. Hence, we have undertaken this entomological survey in five foci situated in different bioclimatic areas to better understand the distribution and the epidemiology of this disease. Results of this study, undertaken during 2011, showed the predominance of Phlebotomus sergenti (55.8%) followed by Ph. perniciosus (12.9%), Ph. longicuspis (12.3%), and Ph. papatasi (12.0%). Ph. sergenti was active during 6 months in subhumid area and 8 months in arid, semiarid, and Saharan areas. Compared to previous studies, our results show a rise in Ph. sergenti abundance and an extension of its activity period. These results could explain the increase in anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis incidence in Morocco and its extension to new nonendemic regions. Ph. perniciosus and Ph. longicuspis have also displayed a large distribution and a long activity period indicating a high potential risk of Leishmania infantum transmission in the studied areas.