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This article has been retracted as it is essentially identical in content with the published article titled “Two genotypes of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae virulence identified in West Africa,” authored by Onasanya Amos, M. M. Ekperigin, A. Afolabi, R. O. Onasanya, Abiodun A. Ojo and I. Ingelbrecht, published in International Journal of Genetics and Molecular Biology, August 2013 (DOI: 10.5897/IJGMB2013.0070).

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  1. O. Amos, M. M. Ekperigin, A. Afolabi, R. O. Onasanya, A. A. Ojo, and I. Ingelbrecht, “Genetic analysis and molecular identification of virulence in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae Isolates,” ISRN Molecular Biology, vol. 2013, Article ID 160157, 8 pages, 2013.
ISRN Molecular Biology
Volume 2013, Article ID 160157, 8 pages
Research Article

Genetic Analysis and Molecular Identification of Virulence in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae Isolates

1Department of Chemical Sciences, College of Sciences, Afe Babalola University, PMB 5454, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria
2Federal College of Agriculture Ibadan, PMB 502, Ibadan, Nigeria

Received 22 June 2013; Accepted 4 August 2013

Academic Editors: H. Fu and D. Picketts

Copyright © 2013 Amos Onasanya et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) of rice is a very destructive disease worldwide and is caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). The aim of the present study was to examine if the Xoo virulence pathotypes obtained using phenotypic pathotyping could be confirmed using molecular approach. After screening of 60 Operon primers with genomic DNA of two Xoo isolates (virulent pathotype, Vr, and mildly virulent pathotype, MVr), 12 Operon primers that gave reproducible and useful genetic information were selected and used to analyze 50 Xoo isolates from 7 West African countries. Genetic analysis revealed two major Xoo virulence genotypes (Mta and Mtb) with Mta having two subgroups (Mta1 and Mta2). Mta1 (Vr1) subgroup genotype has occurrence in six countries and Mta2 (Vr2) in three countries while Mtb genotype characterized mildly virulence (MVr) Xoo isolates present in five countries. The study revealed possible linkage and correlation between phenotypic pathotyping and molecular typing of Xoo virulence. Xoo virulence genotypes were known to exist within country and there was evidence of Xoo pathogen migration between countries. Durable resistance rice cultivars would need to overcome both Mta and Mtb Xoo virulence genotypes in order to survive after their deployment into different rice ecologies in West Africa.