Table of Contents
ISRN Ecology
Volume 2013, Article ID 160504, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/160504
Research Article

Interactive Effects of Disturbance, Productivity, and Consumer Diversity on the Structure of Prey Communities

Department of Biological Sciences, Wayne State University, 5047 Gullen Mall, Detroit, MI 48202, USA

Received 17 December 2012; Accepted 8 January 2013

Academic Editors: M. Bishop, M. A. Molina-Montenegro, J. L. Nielsen, and S. Sabater

Copyright © 2013 Christopher F. Steiner. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. A. Leibold, J. M. Chase, J. B. Shurin, and A. L. Downing, “Species turnover and the regulation of trophic structure,” Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, vol. 28, pp. 467–494, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. G. G. Mittelbach, C. W. Osenberg, and M. A. Leibold, “Trophic relations and ontogenetic niche shifts in aquatic ecosystems,” in Size-Structured Populations Ecology and Evolution, B. Ebenman and L. Persson, Eds., pp. 219–235, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  3. G. A. Polis and D. R. Strong, “Food web complexity and community dynamics,” The American Naturalist, vol. 147, no. 5, pp. 813–846, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. D. R. Strong, “Are trophic cascades all wet? Differentiation and donor-control in speciose ecosystems,” Ecology, vol. 73, no. 3, pp. 747–754, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. M. Chase, “Are there real differences among aquatic and terrestrial food webs?” Trends in Ecology and Evolution, vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 408–412, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. M. Chase, M. A. Leibold, A. L. Downing, and J. B. Shurin, “The effects of productivity, herbivory, and plant species turnover in grassland food webs,” Ecology, vol. 81, no. 9, pp. 2485–2497, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. H. Hillebrand, D. S. Gruner, E. T. Borer et al., “Consumer versus resource control of producer diversity depends on ecosystem type and producer community structure,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 104, no. 26, pp. 10904–10909, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. B. Shurin, E. T. Borer, E. W. Seabloom et al., “A cross-ecosystem comparison of the strength of trophic cascades,” Ecology Letters, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 785–791, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. A. Leibold, “A graphical model of keystone predators in food webs: trophic regulation of abundance, incidence, and diversity patterns in communities,” The American Naturalist, vol. 147, no. 5, pp. 784–812, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. C. F. Steiner, “The effects of prey heterogeneity and consumer identity on the limitation of trophic-level biomass,” Ecology, vol. 82, no. 9, pp. 2495–2506, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. C. F. Steiner, “Keystone predator effects and grazer control of planktonic primary production,” Oikos, vol. 101, no. 3, pp. 569–577, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. L. Jiang and P. J. Morin, “Predator diet breadth influences the relative importance of bottom-up and top-down control of prey biomass and diversity,” The American Naturalist, vol. 165, no. 3, pp. 350–363, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. B. J. M. Bohannan and R. E. Lenski, “Effect of prey heterogeneity on the response of a model food chain to resource enrichment,” The American Naturalist, vol. 153, no. 1, pp. 73–82, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. Naeem and S. B. Li, “Consumer species richness and autotrophic biomass,” Ecology, vol. 79, no. 8, pp. 2603–2615, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. R. D. Holt and M. Loreau, “Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning: the role of trophic interactions and the importance of system openness,” in Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function, A. Kinzig and S. Pacala, Eds., pp. 246–262, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  16. J. E. Duffy, “Biodiversity and ecosystem function: the consumer connection,” Oikos, vol. 99, no. 2, pp. 201–219, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. E. Duffy, J. P. Richardson, and E. A. Canuel, “Grazer diversity effects on ecosystem functioning in seagrass beds,” Ecology Letters, vol. 6, no. 7, pp. 637–645, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A. R. Ives, B. J. Cardinale, and W. E. Snyder, “A synthesis of subdisciplines: predator-prey interactions, and biodiversity and ecosystem functioning,” Ecology Letters, vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 102–116, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. M. Wojdak, “Relative strength of top-down, bottom-up, and consumer species richness effects on pond ecosystems,” Ecological Monographs, vol. 75, no. 4, pp. 489–504, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. B. J. Cardinale, D. S. Srivastava, J. E. Duffy et al., “Effects of biodiversity on the functioning of trophic groups and ecosystems,” Nature, vol. 443, no. 7114, pp. 989–992, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. Loreau and A. Hector, “Partitioning selection and complementarity in biodiversity experiments,” Nature, vol. 412, no. 6842, pp. 72–76, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. Byrnes, J. J. Stachowicz, K. M. Hultgren, A. R. Hughes, S. V. Olyarnik, and C. S. Thornber, “Predator diversity strengthens trophic cascades in kelp forests by modifying herbivore behaviour,” Ecology Letters, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 61–71, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. P. Grover, “Competition, herbivory, and enrichment: nutrient-based models for edible and inedible plants,” The American Naturalist, vol. 145, no. 5, pp. 746–774, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. R. D. Holt, J. Grover, and D. Tilman, “Simple rules for interspecific dominance in systems with exploitative and apparent competition,” The American Naturalist, vol. 144, no. 5, pp. 741–771, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. B. J. M. Bohannan and R. E. Lenski, “The relative importance of competition and predation varies with productivity in a model community,” The American Naturalist, vol. 156, no. 4, pp. 329–340, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. C. F. Steiner, C. A. Klausmeier, and E. Litchman, “Transient dynamics and the destabilizing effects of prey heterogeneity,” Ecology, vol. 93, no. 3, pp. 632–644, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. W. P. Sousa, “The role of disturbance in natural communities,” Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, vol. 15, pp. 353–391, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. P. A. Abrams, “The effect of density-independent mortality on the coexistence of exploitative competitors for renewing resources,” The American Naturalist, vol. 158, no. 5, pp. 459–470, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. C. F. Steiner, “Impacts of density-independent mortality and productivity on the strength and outcome of competition,” Ecology, vol. 86, no. 3, pp. 727–739, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. T. Wootton, “Effects of disturbance on species diversity: a multitrophic perspective,” The American Naturalist, vol. 152, no. 6, pp. 803–825, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  31. C. Violle, Z. Pu, and L. Jiang, “Experimental demonstration of the importance of competition under disturbance,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 107, no. 29, pp. 12925–12929, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. B. J. Cardinale and M. A. Palmer, “Disturbance moderates biodiversity-ecosystem function relationships: experimental evidence from caddisflies in stream mesocosms,” Ecology, vol. 83, no. 7, pp. 1915–1927, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. B. J. Cardinale, M. A. Palmer, A. R. Ives, and S. S. Brooks, “Diversity-productivity relationships in streams vary as a function of the natural disturbance regime,” Ecology, vol. 86, no. 3, pp. 716–726, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. J. L. Garland, K. L. Cook, J. L. Adams, and L. Kerkhof, “Culturability as an indicator of succession in microbial communities,” Microbial Ecology, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 150–158, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. A. K. Müller, K. Westergaard, S. Christensen, and S. J. Sørensen, “The diversity and function of soil microbial communities exposed to different disturbances,” Microbial Ecology, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 49–58, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. L. D. Rasmussen and S. J. Sørensen, “Effects of mercury contamination on the culturable heterotrophic, functional and genetic diversity of the bacterial community in soil,” FEMS Microbiology Ecology, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J. A. Krumins, Z. T. Long, C. F. Steiner, and P. J. Morin, “Indirect effects of food web diversity and productivity on bacterial community function and composition,” Functional Ecology, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 514–521, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. O. L. Petchey, “Integrating methods that investigate how complementarity influences ecosystem functioning,” Oikos, vol. 101, no. 2, pp. 323–330, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. J. W. Fox, “Using the price equation to partition the effects of biodiversity loss on ecosystem function,” Ecology, vol. 87, no. 11, pp. 2687–2696, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. R Development Core Team, R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing, R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria, 2011, http://www.R-project.org/.
  41. A. Hector, S. von Felten, and B. Schmid, “Analysis of variance with unbalanced data: an update for ecology & evolution,” Journal of Animal Ecology, vol. 79, no. 2, pp. 308–316, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. M. J. Crawley, The R Book, John Wiley & Sons, West Sussex, UK, 2007.
  43. E. Herberich, J. Sikorski, and T. Hothorn, “A robust procedure for comparing multiple means under heteroscedasticity in unbalanced designs,” PloS ONE, vol. 5, no. 3, Article ID e9788, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. J. Oksanen, F. G. Blanchet, R. Kindt, P. Legendre, R. B. O'Hara et al., “Vegan: Community Ecology Package,” R package version 1. 17-4, 2010, http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=vegan/.
  45. J. Norberg, “Resource-niche complementarity and autotrophic compensation determines ecosystem-level responses to increased cladoceran species richness,” Oecologia, vol. 122, no. 2, pp. 264–272, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. C. F. Steiner, T. L. Darcy-Hall, N. J. Dorn, E. A. Garcia, G. G. Mittelbach, and J. M. Wojdak, “The influence of consumer diversity and indirect facilitation on trophic level biomass and stability,” Oikos, vol. 110, no. 3, pp. 556–566, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. C. de Mazancourt, M. Loreau, and L. Abbadie, “Grazing optimization and nutrient cycling: When do herbivores enhance plant production?” Ecology, vol. 79, no. 7, pp. 2242–2252, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. S. J. McNaughton, “Ecology of a grazing ecosystem: the Serengeti,” Ecological Monographs, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 259–294, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  49. B. Smith and J. B. Wilson, “A consumer's guide to evenness indices,” Oikos, vol. 76, no. 1, pp. 70–82, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. R. L. Mackey and D. J. Currie, “The diversity-disturbance relationship: is it generally strong and peaked?” Ecology, vol. 82, no. 12, pp. 3479–3492, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. N. G. Hairston, F. E. Smith, and L. B. Slobodkin, “Community structure, population control, and competition,” The American Naturalist, vol. 94, pp. 421–425, 1960. View at Google Scholar
  52. W. W. Murdoch, “Community structure, population control, and competition—a critique,” The American Naturalist, vol. 100, pp. 219–226, 1966. View at Google Scholar
  53. A. Sih, P. Crowley, M. McPeek, J. Petranka, and K. Strohmeier, “Predation, competition, and prey communities: a review of field experiments,” Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, vol. 16, pp. 269–311, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus