Improvement of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Production in Echium acanthocarpum Transformed Hairy Root Cultures by Application of Different Abiotic Stress Conditions
Total lipid content (TL; mg/g DW), total fatty acid content (FA, mg/g DW), and the percentage of each fatty acid (%) of Echium acanthocarpum hairy roots at sampling point 4 cultured for 20 days (culture B1) or 45 days (cultures C1–C4).
Sampling point 4
TL (mg/g DW)
FA (mg/g DW)
GLA + SDA
Total saturated FA
Total monoene FA
6-des index (n-6)
6-des index (n-3)
ND: Not detected. n-6 and n-3 6-desaturation indexes were calculated as 18:3n-6/(18:3n-6 + 18:2n-6) and 18:4n-3/(18:4n-3 + 18:3n-3), respectively.
Double bond index (DBI) was calculated as [(%18:1n) + 2 (%18:2n) + 3 (%18:3n) + 4 (18:4n)]/100. Values represent the mean of three replicates () SD.