International Scholarly Research Notices / 2013 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Topological Order: From Long-Range Entangled Quantum Matter to a Unified Origin of Light and Electrons

Table 1

Symmetry-breaking orders can be probed/defined through linear responses. But topological order cannot be probed/defined through linear responses. We need topological probes to define topological orders.

OrderExperiment

Crystal orderX-ray diffraction
Ferromagnetic orderMagnetization
Antiferromagnetic orderNeutron scattering
Superuid orderZero viscosity and vorticity quantization
Topological orderTopological degeneracy
(Global dancing pattern)non-Abelian geometric phase