Table of Contents
ISRN Infectious Diseases
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 209654, 8 pages
Research Article

Efficacy of a Mosaic Long-Lasting Insecticide Net, PermaNet 3.0, against Wild Populations of Culex quinquefasciatus in Experimental Huts in Togo

1Kintampo Health Research Centre, Ghana Health Service, Ministry of Health, P.O. Box 200, Kintampo, Ghana
2Laboratoire d'Entomologie Appliquée (LEA), Faculté des Sciences, Université de Lome, P.O. Box 1515, Lomé, Togo
3Centre de Recherche Entomologique de Cotonou (CREC), Institut de Recherche Pour le Développement (IRD), 01 P.O. Box 4414 RP, Cotonou, Benin
4Anopheles Biology and Control (ABC) Network, Institut de Recherche Pour le Développement (IRD), P.O. Box 1386, Dakar, Senegal

Received 1 October 2012; Accepted 30 October 2012

Academic Editors: K. Couper, M. A. De Souza, H. Hisaeda, and D.-D. Ji

Copyright © 2013 Dominic B. Dery et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


PermaNet 3.0 was evaluated against Culex quinquefasciatus in experimental huts in Lomé. Endpoints were deterrence, exophily, blood feeding inhibition, and mortality. Insecticide susceptibility of Culex quinquefasciatus was assessed with permethrin (1%), DDT (4%), bendiocarb (0.1%), deltamethrin (0.5%, 0.05%), carbosulfan (0.4%), and chlorpyrifos methyl (0.4%). Total of 1,223 Cx. quinquefasciatus females were collected. PermaNet 3.0 unwashed deterred 16.84% Culex mosquitoes. After 20 washes, it deterred 5.79% mosquitoes compared to 6.84% deterrence by unwashed PermaNet 2.0. PermaNet 3.0 induced mosquitoes to exit huts 50.48% and inhibited blood feeding 70.97% in unwashed state. After 20 washes, the net induced 42.91% mosquitoes to exit and inhibited 67.06% mosquitoes from blood feeding. PermaNet 3.0 gave 76% personal protection at zero wash and 69% protection after 20 washes. The net retained 7.1% insecticidal effect in the unwashed state and after 20 washes 6.5%. Cx. quinquefasciatus was resistant to tested insecticides (6%–50% mortality). PermaNet 3.0 is a good control tool against mosquitoes. However, Cx. quinquefasciatus is less affected by PermaNet 3.0. The evaluation depicts the success of vector control innovations using pyrethroids and nonpyrethroids in combination on nets. Additional studies with Culex species are recommended to know whether the difference in blood feeding is interspecific (difference in vector behaviour) and not due to intertrial variability.