Table of Contents
ISRN Nephrology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 215690, 8 pages
Review Article

Urine Bag as a Modern Day Matula

Department of General Medicine, Indira Gandhi Medical College, Kathirkamam, Pondicherry 605009, India

Received 18 April 2013; Accepted 8 May 2013

Academic Editors: S. Assimakopoulos, C. Fourtounas, and A. H. Tzamaloukas

Copyright © 2013 Stalin Viswanathan. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Since time immemorial uroscopic analysis has been a staple of diagnostic medicine. It received prominence during the middle ages with the introduction of the matula. Urinary discoloration is generally due to changes in urochrome concentration associated with the presence of other endogenous or exogenous pigments. Observation of urine colors has received less attention due to the advances made in urinalysis. A gamut of urine colors can be seen in urine bags of hospitalized patients that may give clue to presence of infections, medications, poisons, and hemolysis. Although worrisome to the patient, urine discoloration is mostly benign and resolves with removal of the offending agent. Twelve urine bags with discolored urine (and their predisposing causes) have been shown as examples. Urine colors (blue-green, yellow, orange, pink, red, brown, black, white, and purple) and their etiologies have been reviewed following a literature search in these databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, Science Direct, Proquest, Google Scholar, Springer, and Ovid.